Malatesta, P., Hartfuss, E. & Götz, M.
Isolation of radial glial cells by fluorescent-activated cell sorting reveals a neuronal lineage. Development
127, 5253–5263 (2000).
Johansson, C. B.
et al. Identification of a neural stem cell in the adult mammalian central nervous system. Cell
96, 25–34 (1999).
Doetsch, F., Caille, I., Lim, D. A., Garcia-Verdugo, J. M. & Alvarez-Buylla, A.
Subventricular zone astrocytes are neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Cell
97, 703–716 (1999).
Miyata, T., Kawaguchi, A., Okano, H. & Ogawa, M.
Asymmetric inheritance of radial glial fibers by cortical neurons. Neuron
31, 727–741 (2001).
Noctor, S. C., Flint, A. C., Weissman, T. A., Dammerman, R. S. & Kriegstein, A. R.
Neurons derived from radial glial cells establish radial units in neocortex. Nature
409, 714–720 (2001).
Seri, B., Garcia-Verdugo, J. M., McEwen, B. S. & Alvarez-Buylla, A.
Astrocytes give rise to new neurons in the adult mammalian hippocampus. J. Neurosci.
21, 7153–7160 (2001).
Doetsch, F., Garcia-Verdugo, J. M. & Alvarez-Buylla, A.
Regeneration of a germinal layer in the adult mammalian brain. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
96, 11619–11624 (1999).
Kriegstein, A. & Alvarez-Buylla, A.
The glial nature of embryonic and adult neural stem cells. Annu. Rev. Neurosci.
32, 149–184 (2009).
et al. Conserved and acquired features of adult neurogenesis in the zebrafish telencephalon. Dev. Biol.
295, 278–293 (2006).
Becker, C. G. & Becker, T.
Adult zebrafish as a model for successful central nervous system regeneration. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci.
26, 71–80 (2008).
Grandel, H., Kaslin, J., Ganz, J., Wenzel, I. & Brand, M.
Neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the adult zebrafish brain: origin, proliferation dynamics, migration and cell fate. Dev. Biol.
295, 263–277 (2006).
et al. Notch activity levels control the balance between quiescence and recruitment of adult neural stem cells. J. Neurosci.
30, 7961–7974 (2010).
Zupanc, G. K., Hinsch, K. & Gage, F. H.
Proliferation, migration, neuronal differentiation, and long-term survival of new cells in the adult zebrafish brain. J. Comp. Neurol.
488, 290–319 (2005).
Chojnacki, A. K., Mak, G. K. & Weiss, S.
Identity crisis for adult periventricular neural stem cells: subventricular zone astrocytes, ependymal cells or both?
Nature Rev. Neurosci.
10, 153–163 (2009).
Kettenmann, H. & Ransom, B. R.
Neuroglia (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2005).
Oberheim, N. A.
et al. Uniquely hominid features of adult human astrocytes. J. Neurosci.
29, 3276–3287 (2009).
Nishiyama, A., Komitova, M., Suzuki, R. & Zhu, X.
Polydendrocytes (NG2 cells): multifunctional cells with lineage plasticity. Nature Rev. Neurosci.
10, 9–22 (2009).
Gotz, M. & Huttner, W. B.
The cell biology of neurogenesis. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.
6, 777–788 (2005).
Liu, X., Bolteus, A. J., Balkin, D. M., Henschel, O. & Bordey, A.
GFAP-expressing cells in the postnatal subventricular zone display a unique glial phenotype intermediate between radial glia and astrocytes. Glia
54, 394–410 (2006).
Parpura, V. & Haydon, P. G.
Astrocytes in (Patho)Physiology of the Nervous System (eds. Parpura, V. & Haydon, P. G.) (Springer, New York, 2009).
Ninkovic, J., Mori, T. & Gotz, M.
Distinct modes of neuron addition in adult mouse neurogenesis. J. Neurosci.
27, 10906–10911 (2007).
Sofroniew, M. V.
Molecular dissection of reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation. Trends Neurosci.
32, 638–647 (2009). This review summarizes the groundbreaking work on ablation of proliferating reactive astrocytes, which revealed the important beneficial aspects of reactive astrogliosis.
Cahoy, J. D.
et al. A transcriptome database for astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes: a new resource for understanding brain development and function. J. Neurosci.
28, 264–278 (2008). This beautiful transcriptome analysis provided a major advance in our knowledge about astrocyte-specific gene expression and extended this to gain novel functional insights, such as the discovery of pathways mediating phagocytosis by astrocytes.
Sofroniew, M. V. & Vinters, H. V.
Astrocytes: biology and pathology. Acta Neuropathol.
119, 7–35 (2010).
et al. In vivo fate mapping and expression analysis reveals molecular hallmarks of prospectively isolated adult neural stem cells. Cell Stem Cell
7, 744–758 (2010).
Kempermann, G., Jessberger, S., Steiner, B. & Kronenberg, G.
Milestones of neuronal development in the adult hippocampus. Trends Neurosci.
27, 447–452 (2004).
Seri, B., Garcia-Verdugo, J. M., Collado-Morente, L., McEwen, B. S. & Alvarez-Buylla, A.
Cell types, lineage, and architecture of the germinal zone in the adult dentate gyrus. J. Comp. Neurol.
478, 359–378 (2004).
et al. Origin and progeny of reactive gliosis: a source of multipotent cells in the injured brain. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
105, 3581–3586 (2008). This was the first fate mapping analysis of adult glial cells in vivo with the surprising result that some mature astrocytes resume proliferation and even acquire neurosphere-forming potential.
Curtis, M. A.
et al. Human neuroblasts migrate to the olfactory bulb via a lateral ventricular extension. Science
315, 1243–1249 (2007).
Wang, D. D. & Bordey, A.
The astrocyte odyssey. Prog. Neurobiol.
86, 342–367 (2008).
Psachoulia, K., Jamen, F., Young, K. M. & Richardson, W. D.
Cell cycle dynamics of NG2 cells in the postnatal and ageing brain. Neuron Glia Biol.
5, 57–67 (2009).
Simon, C., Götz, M. & Dimou, L.
Slow cycling and self-renewing progenitors in the adult cerebral cortex and their reaction to physiological stimuli and acute injury. Glia (in the press).
Dimou, L., Simon, C., Kirchhoff, F., Takebayashi, H. & Götz, M.
Progeny of Olig2-expressing progenitors in the gray and white matter of the adult mouse cerebral cortex. J. Neurosci.
28, 10434–10442 (2008).
Rivers, L. E.
et al. PDGFRA/NG2 glia generate myelinating oligodendrocytes and piriform projection neurons in adult mice. Nature Neurosci.
11, 1392–1401 (2008).
Guo, F., Ma, J., McCauley, E., Bannerman, P. & Pleasure, D.
Early postnatal proteolipid promoter-expressing progenitors produce multilineage cells in vivo. J. Neurosci.
29, 7256–7270 (2009).
et al. Postnatal NG2 proteoglycan-expressing progenitor cells are intrinsically multipotent and generate functional neurons. J. Cell Biol.
161, 169–186 (2003).
Kang, S. H., Fukaya, M., Yang, J. K., Rothstein, J. D. & Bergles, D. E.
NG2+ CNS glial progenitors remain committed to the oligodendrocyte lineage in postnatal life and following neurodegeneration. Neuron
68, 668–681 (2010).
Kondo, T. & Raff, M.
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells reprogrammed to become multipotential CNS stem cells. Science
289, 1754–1757 (2000).
Shihabuddin, L. S., Horner, P. J., Ray, J. & Gage, F. H.
Adult spinal cord stem cells generate neurons after transplantation in the adult dentate gyrus. J. Neurosci.
20, 8727–8735 (2000).
Hanisch, U. K. & Kettenmann, H.
Microglia: active sensor and versatile effector cells in the normal and pathologic brain. Nature Neurosci.
10, 1387–1394 (2007).
Ridet, J. L., Malhotra, S. K., Privat, A. & Gage, F. H.
Reactive astrocytes: cellular and molecular cues to biological function. Trends Neurosci.
20, 570–577 (1997).
Pekny, M. & Nilsson, M.
Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis. Glia
50, 427–434 (2005).
Buffo, A., Rolando, C. & Ceruti, S.
Astrocytes in the damaged brain: molecular and cellular insights into their reactive response and healing potential. Biochem. Pharmacol.
79, 77–89 (2010).
et al. Astrocytes in injured adult rat spinal cord may acquire the potential of neural stem cells. Neuroscience
128, 775–783 (2004).
et al. Conditional deletion of beta1-integrin in astroglia causes partial reactive gliosis. Glia
57, 1630–1647 (2009). This study describes the key role of the contact of astrocyte endfeet with the basement membrane by deleting integrin-mediated signalling at early postnatal stages, which results in a reactive gliosis phenotype, and highlights the important function of this pathway in regulating astrocytes quiescence.
et al. Focal laser-lesions activate an endogenous population of neural stem/progenitor cells in the adult visual cortex. Brain
132, 2252–2264 (2009).
et al. CNS-resident glial progenitor/stem cells produce Schwann cells as well as oligodendrocytes during repair of CNS demyelination. Cell Stem Cell
6, 578–590 (2010). This was the first unequivocal demonstration that, after injury, CNS glial progenitors can give rise to a peripheral glial cell type, Schwann cells, revising the dogma that Schwann cells derive only from neural crest.
Hampton, D. W., Rhodes, K. E., Zhao, C., Franklin, R. J. & Fawcett, J. W.
The responses of oligodendrocyte precursor cells, astrocytes and microglia to a cortical stab injury, in the brain. Neuroscience
127, 813–820 (2004).
et al. The transcriptome and metabolic gene signature of protoplasmic astrocytes in the adult murine cortex. J. Neurosci.
27, 12255–12266 (2007).
Sellers, D. L., Maris, D. O. & Horner, P. J.
Postinjury niches induce temporal shifts in progenitor fates to direct lesion repair after spinal cord injury. J. Neurosci.
29, 6722–6733 (2009).
et al. Genetic fate mapping of Olig2 progenitors in the injured adult cerebral cortex reveals preferential differentiation into astrocytes. J. Neurosci. Res.
86, 3494–3502 (2008).
et al. Origin of new glial cells in intact and injured adult spinal cord. Cell Stem Cell
7, 470–482 (2010). This study provided the first unequivocal evidence for the multipotent nature of ependymal cells in the injured spinal cord.
et al. Forebrain ependymal cells are Notch-dependent and generate neuroblasts and astrocytes after stroke. Nature Neurosci.
12, 259–267 (2009).
Brown, A. M. & Ransom, B. R.
Astrocyte glycogen and brain energy metabolism. Glia
55, 1263–1271 (2007).
Takano, T., Oberheim, N., Cotrina, M. L. & Nedergaard, M.
Astrocytes and ischemic injury. Stroke
40, S8–12 (2009).
Herrmann, J. E.
et al. STAT3 is a critical regulator of astrogliosis and scar formation after spinal cord injury. J. Neurosci.
28, 7231–7243 (2008).
et al. Conditional ablation of Stat3 or Socs3 discloses a dual role for reactive astrocytes after spinal cord injury. Nature Med.
12, 829–834 (2006). This work provided the first evidence for the key role of STAT signalling in reactive astrocytes in vivo .
Voskuhl, R. R.
et al. Reactive astrocytes form scar-like perivascular barriers to leukocytes during adaptive immune inflammation of the CNS. J. Neurosci.
29, 11511–11522 (2009).
et al. Adult mouse astrocytes degrade amyloid-beta in vitro and in situ. Nature Med.
9, 453–457 (2003).
et al. Increased neurogenesis and astrogenesis from neural progenitor cells grafted in the hippocampus of GFAP−/−Vim−/− mice. Stem Cells
25, 2619–2627 (2007). This study showed the impact of reactive astrogliosis in the host environment on transplanted stem cells, highlighting a further aspect of the important role of intermediate filaments in reactive gliosis.
Pekny, M. & Pekna, M.
Astrocyte intermediate filaments in CNS pathologies and regeneration. J. Pathol.
204, 428–437 (2004).
Seifert, G., Carmignoto, G. & Steinhauser, C.
Astrocyte dysfunction in epilepsy. Brain Res. Rev.
63, 212–221 (2010).
Silver, J. & Miller, J. H.
Regeneration beyond the glial scar. Nature Rev. Neurosci.
5, 146–156 (2004).
Verkman, A. S., Binder, D. K., Bloch, O., Auguste, K. & Papadopoulos, M. C.
Three distinct roles of aquaporin-4 in brain function revealed by knockout mice. Biochim. Biophys. Acta
1758, 1085–1093 (2006).
et al. Loss of astrocyte polarity marks blood–brain barrier impairment during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Acta Neuropathol.
118, 219–233 (2009).
Moore, S. A.
et al. Deletion of brain dystroglycan recapitulates aspects of congenital muscular dystrophy. Nature
418, 422–425 (2002).
Itoh, T., Satou, T., Hashimoto, S. & Ito, H.
Isolation of neural stem cells from damaged rat cerebral cortex after traumatic brain injury. Neuroreport
16, 1687–1691 (2005).
Reuss, B., Dono, R. & Unsicker, K.
Functions of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and FGF-5 in astroglial differentiation and blood-brain barrier permeability: evidence from mouse mutants. J. Neurosci.
23, 6404–6412 (2003).
et al. FGF-2 regulates neurogenesis and degeneration in the dentate gyrus after traumatic brain injury in mice. J. Clin. Invest.
112, 1202–1210 (2003).
Liu, B. & Neufeld, A. H.
Activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in astrocytes: from development to neural injury. J. Neurosci. Res.
85, 3523–3529 (2007).
Rabchevsky, A. G.
et al. A role for transforming growth factor alpha as an inducer of astrogliosis. J. Neurosci.
18, 10541–10552 (1998).
White, R. E., Yin, F. Q. & Jakeman, L. B.
TGF-alpha increases astrocyte invasion and promotes axonal growth into the lesion following spinal cord injury in mice. Exp. Neurol. (2008).
Weickert, C. S. & Blum, M.
Striatal TGF-alpha: postnatal developmental expression and evidence for a role in the proliferation of subependymal cells. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res.
86, 203–216 (1995).
Sibilia, M., Steinbach, J. P., Stingl, L., Aguzzi, A. & Wagner, E. F.
A strain-independent postnatal neurodegeneration in mice lacking the EGF receptor. EMBO J.
17, 719–731 (1998).
Smith, G. M. & Strunz, C.
Growth factor and cytokine regulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans by astrocytes. Glia
52, 209–218 (2005).
Schmid-Brunclik, N., Burgi-Taboada, C., Antoniou, X., Gassmann, M. & Ogunshola, O. O.
Astrocyte responses to injury: VEGF simultaneously modulates cell death and proliferation. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
295, R864–R873 (2008).
Krum, J. M., Mani, N. & Rosenstein, J. M.
Roles of the endogenous VEGF receptors flt-1 and flk-1 in astroglial and vascular remodeling after brain injury. Exp. Neurol.
212, 108–117 (2008).
Greenberg, D. A. & Jin, K.
From angiogenesis to neuropathology. Nature
438, 954–959 (2005).
et al. The Rheb–mTOR pathway is upregulated in reactive astrocytes of the injured spinal cord. J. Neurosci.
29, 1093–1104 (2009).
Humar, R., Kiefer, F. N., Berns, H., Resink, T. J. & Battegay, E. J.
Hypoxia enhances vascular cell proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro via rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent signalling. FASEB J.
16, 771–780 (2002).
Johnson, M. D., O'Connell, M. J., Pilcher, W. & Reeder, J. E.
Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 expression in meningiomas with stimulation of proliferation by the phosphoinositide 3 kinase–Akt pathway. J. Neurosurg.
112, 934–939 (2010).
Fraser, M. M.
et al. Pten loss causes hypertrophy and increased proliferation of astrocytes in vivo. Cancer Res.
64, 7773–7779 (2004).
Gadea, A., Schinelli, S. & Gallo, V.
Endothelin-1 regulates astrocyte proliferation and reactive gliosis via a JNK/c-Jun signalling pathway. J. Neurosci.
28, 2394–2408 (2008).
et al. Type I interferon inhibits astrocytic gliosis and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury by deactivation of the MEK/ERK pathway. J. Neurotrauma
26, 41–53 (2009).
Wang, H. H., Hsieh, H. L., Wu, C. Y. & Yang, C. M.
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via PKC-delta/p42/p44 MAPK/Elk-1 cascade in brain astrocytes. Neurotox Res.
17, 50–65 (2010).
Bonneh-Barkay, D. & Wiley, C. A.
Brain extracellular matrix in neurodegeneration. Brain Pathol.
19, 573–585 (2009).
Swindle, C. S.
et al. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats of human tenascin-C as ligands for EGF receptor. J. Cell Biol.
154, 459–468 (2001).
et al. Chondroitin sulfates are required for fibroblast growth factor-2-dependent proliferation and maintenance in neural stem cells and for epidermal growth factor-dependent migration of their progeny. Stem Cells
28, 775–787 (2010).
Garcion, E., Halilagic, A., Faissner, A. & ffrench-Constant, C.
Generation of an environmental niche for neural stem cell development by the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin C. Development
131, 3423–3432 (2004).
Gates, M. A.
et al. Cell and molecular analysis of the developing and adult mouse subventricular zone of the cerebral hemispheres. J. Comp. Neurol.
361, 249–266 (1995).
von Holst, A., Sirko, S. & Faissner, A.
The unique 473HD-Chondroitinsulfate epitope is expressed by radial glia and involved in neural precursor cell proliferation. J. Neurosci.
26, 4082–4094 (2006).
Doetsch, F., Petreanu, L., Caille, I., Garcia-Verdugo, J. M. & Alvarez-Buylla, A.
EGF converts transit-amplifying neurogenic precursors in the adult brain into multipotent stem cells. Neuron
36, 1021–1034 (2002).
et al. Fibroblast growth factor-2 and its receptor expression in proliferating precursor cells of the subventricular zone in the adult rat brain. Neurosci. Lett.
447, 20–25 (2008).
Gregg, C. & Weiss, S.
Generation of functional radial glial cells by embryonic and adult forebrain neural stem cells. J. Neurosci.
23, 11587–11601 (2003).
Tao, Y., Black, I. B. & DiCicco-Bloom, E.
In vivo neurogenesis is inhibited by neutralizing antibodies to basic fibroblast growth factor. J. Neurobiol.
33, 289–296 (1997).
Kuhn, H. G., Winkler, J., Kempermann, G., Thal, L. J. & Gage, F. H.
Epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2 have different effects on neural progenitors in the adult rat brain. J. Neurosci.
17, 5820–5829 (1997).
Wagner, J. P., Black, I. B. & DiCicco-Bloom, E.
Stimulation of neonatal and adult brain neurogenesis by subcutaneous injection of basic fibroblast growth factor. J. Neurosci.
19, 6006–6016 (1999).
Craig, C. G.
et al. In vivo growth factor expansion of endogenous subependymal neural precursor cell populations in the adult mouse brain. J. Neurosci.
16, 2649–2658 (1996).
et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates neurogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
99, 11946–11950 (2002).
et al. Direct stimulation of adult neural stem cells in vitro and neurogenesis in vivo by vascular endothelial growth factor. Brain Pathol.
14, 237–248 (2004).
Palmer, T. D., Willhoite, A. R. & Gage, F. H.
Vascular niche for adult hippocampal neurogenesis. J. Comp. Neurol.
425, 479–494 (2000). A pioneering study demonstrating for the first time the close vicinity of adult neural progenitors and the vasculature, which has since been demonstrated in various other neurogenic niches in the adult and developing brain, and seems to apply after injury.
et al. Bone marrow mononuclear cells promote proliferation of endogenous neural stem cells through vascular niches after cerebral infarction. Stem Cells
28, 1292–1302 (2010).
Ohab, J. J., Fleming, S., Blesch, A. & Carmichael, S. T.
A neurovascular niche for neurogenesis after stroke. J. Neurosci.
26, 13007–13016 (2006).
et al. Sonic hedgehog is required for progenitor cell maintenance in telencephalic stem cell niches. Neuron
39, 937–950 (2003).
Lai, K., Kaspar, B. K., Gage, F. H. & Schaffer, D. V.
Sonic hedgehog regulates adult neural progenitor proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Nature Neurosci.
6, 21–27 (2003).
Amankulor, N. M.
et al. Sonic hedgehog pathway activation is induced by acute brain injury and regulated by injury-related inflammation. J. Neurosci.
29, 10299–10308 (2009).
Garcia, A. D., Petrova, R., Eng, L. & Joyner, A. L.
Sonic hedgehog regulates discrete populations of astrocytes in the adult mouse forebrain. J. Neurosci.
30, 13597–13608 (2010).
Jiao, J. & Chen, D. F.
Induction of neurogenesis in nonconventional neurogenic regions of the adult central nervous system by niche astrocyte-produced signals. Stem Cells
26, 1221–1230 (2008).
Gabay, L., Lowell, S., Rubin, L. L. & Anderson, D. J.
Deregulation of dorsoventral patterning by FGF confers trilineage differentiation capacity on CNS stem cells in vitro. Neuron
40, 485–499 (2003).
Hack, M. A., Sugimori, M., Lundberg, C., Nakafuku, M. & Götz, M.
Regionalization and fate specification in neurospheres: the role of Olig2 and Pax6. Mol. Cell Neurosci.
25, 664–678 (2004).
Hack, M. A.
et al. Neuronal fate determinants of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis. Nature Neurosci.
8, 865–872 (2005).
Freese, J. L., Pino, D. & Pleasure, S. J.
Wnt signalling in development and disease. Neurobiol. Dis.
38, 148–153 (2010).
Lie, D. C.
et al. Wnt signalling regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Nature
437, 1370–1375 (2005).
et al. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX activates Wnt/beta-catenin signalling to stimulate neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal. Nature Cell Biol.
12, 31–40; suppl. pp 1–9 (2010).
White, B. D.
et al. Beta-catenin signalling increases in proliferating NG2+ progenitors and astrocytes during post-traumatic gliogenesis in the adult brain. Stem Cells
28, 297–307 (2010).
et al. Expression of the ecto-ATPase NTPDase2 in the germinal zones of the developing and adult rat brain. Eur. J. Neurosci.
17, 1355–1364 (2003).
et al. Knockdown of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase impairs neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Neurosci. Lett. (2010).
Grimm, I., Messemer, N., Stanke, M., Gachet, C. & Zimmermann, H.
Coordinate pathways for nucleotide and EGF signalling in cultured adult neural progenitor cells. J. Cell Sci.
122, 2524–2533 (2009).
Mishra, S. K.
et al. Extracellular nucleotide signalling in adult neural stem cells: synergism with growth factor-mediated cellular proliferation. Development
133, 675–684 (2006).
Di Virgilio, F., Ceruti, S., Bramanti, P. & Abbracchio, M. P.
Purinergic signalling in inflammation of the central nervous system. Trends Neurosci.
32, 79–87 (2009).
et al. Evidence for heterogeneity of astrocyte de-differentiation in vitro: astrocytes transform into intermediate precursor cells following induction of ACM from scratch-insulted astrocytes. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
30, 483–491 (2010).
et al. Reactive astrogliosis induces astrocytic differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells in vitro. J. Neurosci. Res.
84, 1415–1424 (2006).
Wanner, I. B.
et al. A new in vitro model of the glial scar inhibits axon growth. Glia
56, 1691–1709 (2008).
Hampton, D. W.
et al. A potential role for bone morphogenetic protein signalling in glial cell fate determination following adult central nervous system injury in vivo. Eur. J. Neurosci.
26, 3024–3035 (2007).
Fuller, M. L.
et al. Bone morphogenetic proteins promote gliosis in demyelinating spinal cord lesions. Ann. Neurol.
62, 288–300 (2007).
et al. Adult neurogenesis requires Smad4-mediated bone morphogenic protein signalling in stem cells. J. Neurosci.
28, 434–446 (2008).
Gajera, C. R.
et al. LRP2 in ependymal cells regulates BMP signalling in the adult neurogenic niche. J. Cell Sci.
123, 1922–1930 (2010).
Lim, D. A.
et al. Noggin antagonizes BMP signalling to create a niche for adult neurogenesis. Neuron
28, 713–726 (2000).
et al. Expression pattern of the transcription factor Olig2 in response to brain injuries: implications for neuronal repair. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
102, 18183–18188 (2005).
et al. Origin of oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone of the adult brain. J. Neurosci.
26, 7907–7918 (2006).
et al. Chordin-induced lineage plasticity of adult SVZ neuroblasts after demyelination. Nature Neurosci.
13, 541–550 (2010). This work unravelled the signalling pathway mediating recruitment of new oligodendrocyte progenitors from the neural stem cell niche after demyelination in the corpus callosum.
et al. Signalling through BMPR-IA regulates quiescence and long-term activity of neural stem cells in the adult hippocampus. Cell Stem Cell
7, 78–89 (2010).
Xiao, Q., Du, Y., Wu, W. & Yip, H. K.
Bone morphogenetic proteins mediate cellular response and, together with Noggin, regulate astrocyte differentiation after spinal cord injury. Exp. Neurol.
221, 353–366 (2010).
Bauer, S. & Patterson, P. H.
Leukemia inhibitory factor promotes neural stem cell self-renewal in the adult brain. J. Neurosci.
26, 12089–12099 (2006).
Fukuda, S. & Taga, T.
Cell fate determination regulated by a transcriptional signal network in the developing mouse brain. Anat. Sci. Int.
80, 12–18 (2005).
Kessaris, N., Pringle, N. & Richardson, W. D.
Specification of CNS glia from neural stem cells in the embryonic neuroepithelium. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B
363, 71–85 (2008).
Hall, A. K. & Miller, R. H.
Emerging roles for bone morphogenetic proteins in central nervous system glial biology. J. Neurosci. Res.
76, 1–8 (2004).
Deverman, B. E. & Patterson, P. H.
Cytokines and CNS development. Neuron
64, 61–78 (2009).
et al. A positive autoregulatory loop of Jak–STAT signalling controls the onset of astrogliogenesis. Nature Neurosci.
8, 616–625 (2005).
Levy, D. E. & Darnell, J. E. Jr.
Stats: transcriptional control and biological impact. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.
3, 651–662 (2002).
et al. Regulation of gliogenesis in the central nervous system by the JAK–STAT signalling pathway. Science
278, 477–483 (1997).
et al. Evidence that embryonic neurons regulate the onset of cortical gliogenesis via cardiotrophin-1. Neuron
48, 253–265 (2005).
et al. Fibrinogen triggers astrocyte scar formation by promoting the availability of active TGF-beta after vascular damage. J. Neurosci.
30, 5843–5854 (2010).
Wang, Y., Moges, H., Bharucha, Y. & Symes, A.
Smad3 null mice display more rapid wound closure and reduced scar formation after a stab wound to the cerebral cortex. Exp. Neurol.
203, 168–184 (2007).
Kahn, M. A., Ellison, J. A., Speight, G. J. & de Vellis, J.
CNTF regulation of astrogliosis and the activation of microglia in the developing rat central nervous system. Brain Res.
685, 55–67 (1995).
Levison, S. W., Jiang, F. J., Stoltzfus, O. K. & Ducceschi, M. H.
IL-6-type cytokines enhance epidermal growth factor-stimulated astrocyte proliferation. Glia
32, 328–337 (2000).
Neary, J. T. & Kang, Y.
Signalling from P2 nucleotide receptors to protein kinase cascades induced by CNS injury: implications for reactive gliosis and neurodegeneration. Mol. Neurobiol.
31, 95–103 (2005).
Washburn, K. B. & Neary, J. T.
P2 purinergic receptors signal to STAT3 in astrocytes: difference in STAT3 responses to P2Y and P2X receptor activation. Neuroscience
142, 411–423 (2006).
Seidenfaden, R., Desoeuvre, A., Bosio, A., Virard, I. & Cremer, H.
Glial conversion of SVZ-derived committed neuronal precursors after ectopic grafting into the adult brain. Mol. Cell Neurosci.
32, 187–198 (2006).
et al. Glial cells generate neurons: the role of the transcription factor Pax6. Nature Neurosci.
5, 308–315 (2002).
Karl, M. O.
et al. Stimulation of neural regeneration in the mouse retina. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
105, 19508–19513 (2008). A key study demonstrating the possibility of endogenous repair from glial cells, in this case Müller glia, after excitotoxic injury by activation via growth factors.
et al. Functional properties of neurons derived from in vitro reprogrammed postnatal astroglia. J. Neurosci.
27, 8654–8664 (2007).
et al. Growth factor treatment and genetic manipulation stimulate neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis by endogenous neural progenitors in the injured adult spinal cord. J. Neurosci.
26, 11948–11960 (2006).
et al. Neuronal network formation from reprogrammed early postnatal rat cortical glial cells. Cereb. Cortex (2010).
et al. Directing astroglia from the cerebral cortex into subtype specific functional neurons. PLoS Biol.
8, e1000373 (2010).
Cell fate specification in the mammalian telencephalon. Prog. Neurobiol.
83, 37–52 (2007).
Baraban, S. C.
et al. Reduction of seizures by transplantation of cortical GABAergic interneuron precursors into Kv1.1 mutant mice. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
106, 15472–15477 (2009).
et al. Polycomb limits the neurogenic competence of neural precursor cells to promote astrogenic fate transition. Neuron
63, 600–613 (2009).
et al. Sequential phases of cortical specification involve Neurogenin-dependent and -independent pathways. EMBO J.
23, 2892–2902 (2004).
Brill, M. S.
et al. Adult generation of glutamatergic olfactory bulb interneurons. Nature Neurosci.
12, 1524–1533 (2009).
et al. Tbr1 regulates regional and laminar identity of postmitotic neurons in developing neocortex. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
107, 13129–13134 (2010).
Lamba, D. A., Hayes, S., Karl, M. O. & Reh, T.
Baf60c is a component of the neural progenitor-specific BAF complex in developing retina. Dev. Dyn.
237, 3016–3023 (2008).
Zhou, Q. & Melton, D. A.
Extreme makeover: converting one cell into another. Cell Stem Cell
3, 382–388 (2008).
Braak, H. & Del Tredici, K.
Assessing fetal nerve cell grafts in Parkinson's disease. Nature Med. (2008).
Lane, E. L., Bjorklund, A., Dunnett, S. B. & Winkler, C.
Neural grafting in Parkinson's disease unraveling the mechanisms underlying graft-induced dyskinesia. Prog. Brain Res.
184, 295–309 (2010).
et al. Neurogenesis in the chronic lesions of multiple sclerosis. Brain
131, 2366–2375 (2008).
Curtis, M. A.
et al. Increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult human Huntington's disease brain. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
100, 9023–9027 (2003).
et al. Increased neural progenitors in vascular dementia. Neurobiol. Aging (2010).
Minger, S. L.
et al. Endogenous neurogenesis in the human brain following cerebral infarction. Regen. Med.
2, 69–74 (2007).
Curtis, M. A., Faull, R. L. & Eriksson, P. S.
The effect of neurodegenerative diseases on the subventricular zone. Nature Rev. Neurosci.
8, 712–723 (2007).
Sgubin, D., Aztiria, E., Perin, A., Longatti, P. & Leanza, G.
Activation of endogenous neural stem cells in the adult human brain following subarachnoid hemorrhage. J. Neurosci. Res.
85, 1647–1655 (2007).
et al. Injury-induced neural stem/progenitor cells in post-stroke human cerebral cortex. Eur. J. Neurosci.
31, 90–98 (2010).
et al. NG2+/Olig2+ cells are the major cycle-related cell population of the adult human normal brain. Brain Pathol.
20, 399–411 (2010).
Nunes, M. C.
et al. Identification and isolation of multipotential neural progenitor cells from the subcortical white matter of the adult human brain. Nature Med.
9, 439–447 (2003).
Carmignoto, G. & Gomez-Gonzalo, M.
The contribution of astrocyte signalling to neurovascular coupling. Brain Res. Rev.
63, 138–148 (2010).
Simard, M. & Nedergaard, M.
The neurobiology of glia in the context of water and ion homeostasis. Neuroscience
129, 877–896 (2004).
Halassa, M. M., Fellin, T. & Haydon, P. G.
Tripartite synapses: roles for astrocytic purines in the control of synaptic physiology and behavior. Neuropharmacology
57, 343–346 (2009).
et al. Protective role of reactive astrocytes in brain ischemia. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
28, 468–481 (2008).
Lindvall, O. & Kokaia, Z.
Stem cells for the treatment of neurological disorders. Nature
441, 1094–1096 (2006).
Massouh, M. & Saghatelyan, A.
De-routing neuronal precursors in the adult brain to sites of injury: role of the vasculature. Neuropharmacology
58, 877–883 (2010).
Jin, K., Wang, X., Xie, L., Mao, X. O. & Greenberg, D. A.
Transgenic ablation of doublecortin-expressing cells suppresses adult neurogenesis and worsens stroke outcome in mice. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
107, 7993–7998 (2010).
Chen, J., Magavi, S. S. & Macklis, J. D.
Neurogenesis of corticospinal motor neurons extending spinal projections in adult mice. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
101, 16357–16362 (2004). This is so far the only evidence for endogenous generation of new, long-distance projection neurons forming connections from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord and surviving for more than a year.
Magavi, S. S., Leavitt, B. R. & Macklis, J. D.
Induction of neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult mice. Nature
405, 951–955 (2000).
et al. Subventricular zone-derived neuroblasts migrate and differentiate into mature neurons in the post-stroke adult striatum. J. Neurosci.
26, 6627–6636 (2006).
et al. Regeneration of hippocampal pyramidal neurons after ischemic brain injury by recruitment of endogenous neural progenitors. Cell
110, 429–441 (2002). This work is still the gold standard for endogenous repair with an entire region of the hippocampus regenerated from endogenous progenitors and restoring function.
Lledo, P. M., Merkle, F. T. & Alvarez-Buylla, A.
Origin and function of olfactory bulb interneuron diversity. Trends Neurosci.
31, 392–400 (2008).
Brill, M. S.
et al. A dlx2- and pax6-dependent transcriptional code for periglomerular neuron specification in the adult olfactory bulb. J. Neurosci.
28, 6439–6452 (2008).
et al. Cytoplasmic translocation of Olig2 in adult glial progenitors marks the generation of reactive astrocytes following autoimmune inflammation. Exp. Neurol.
201, 349–358 (2006).
Ghashghaei, H. T.
et al. Reinduction of ErbB2 in astrocytes promotes radial glial progenitor identity in adult cerebral cortex. Genes Dev.
21, 3258–3271 (2007).