Research on brain–machine interfaces has been ongoing for at least a decade. During this period, simultaneous recordings of the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of individual neurons have been used for direct, real-time control of various artificial devices. Brain–machine interfaces have also added greatly to our knowledge of the fundamental physiological principles governing the operation of large neural ensembles. Further understanding of these principles is likely to have a key role in the future development of neuroprosthetics for restoring mobility in severely paralysed patients.
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We thank N. Fitzsimmons for his assistance with designing figures for this manuscript.
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Nicolelis, M., Lebedev, M. Principles of neural ensemble physiology underlying the operation of brain–machine interfaces. Nat Rev Neurosci 10, 530–540 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2653
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