Kim, K. H., Relkin, N. R., Lee, K. M. & Hirsch, J. Distinct cortical areas associated with native and second languages. Nature 388, 171–174 (1997).
Elbert, T., Pantev, C., Wienbruch, C., Rockstroh, B. & Taub, E. Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science 270, 305–307 (1995).
Pantev, C. et al. Increased auditory cortical representation in musicians. Nature 392, 811–814 (1998).
Hensch, T. K. Critical period regulation. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 549–579 (2004).
Wiesel, T. N. & Hubel, D. H. Single-cell responses in striate cortex of kittens deprived of vision in one eye. J. Neurophysiol. 26, 1003–1017 (1963).
A classic paper for anyone interested in the fields of development, plasticity and vision.
Berardi, N., Pizzorusso, T. & Maffei, L. Critical periods during sensory development. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 10, 138–145 (2000).
Daw, N. Visual Development (Plenum, New York, 1995).
Hubel, D. H., Wiesel, T. N. & LeVay, S. Functional architecture of area 17 in normal and monocularly deprived macaque monkeys. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 40, 581–589 (1976).
Shatz, C. J. & Stryker, M. P. Ocular dominance in layer IV of the cat's visual cortex and the effects of monocular deprivation. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 281, 267–283 (1978).
Antonini, A. & Stryker, M. P. Plasticity of geniculocortical afferents following brief or prolonged monocular occlusion in the cat. J. Comp. Neurol. 369, 64–82 (1996).
Antonini, A., Fagiolini, M. & Stryker, M. P. Anatomical correlates of functional plasticity in mouse visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 19, 4388–4406 (1999).
Details the well known anatomical consequences of monocular deprivation in terms of thalamic input to the neocortex. These structural events are far slower than intracortical changes (discussed in references 12, 13, 85 and 86).
Trachtenberg, J. T., Trepel, C. & Stryker, M. P. Rapid extragranular plasticity in the absence of thalamocortical plasticity in the developing primary visual cortex. Science 287, 2029–2032 (2000).
Trachtenberg, J. T. & Stryker, M. P. Rapid anatomical plasticity of horizontal connections in the developing visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 21, 3476–3482 (2001).
Katz, L. C. & Crowley, J. C. Development of cortical circuits: lessons from ocular dominance columns. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 3, 34–42 (2002).
Kaschube, M., Wolf, F., Geisel, T. & Lowel, S. Genetic influence on quantitative features of neocortical architecture. J. Neurosci. 22, 7206–7217 (2002).
Adams, D. L. & Horton, J. C. Shadows cast by retinal blood vessels mapped in primary visual cortex. Science 298, 572–576 (2002).
Willshaw, D. J. & von der Malsburg, C. How patterned neural connections can be set up by self-organization. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 194, 431–445 (1976).
Miller, K. D., Keller, J. B. & Stryker, M. P. Ocular dominance column development: analysis and simulation. Science 245, 605–615 (1989).
Hensch, T. K. & Stryker, M. P. Columnar architecture sculpted by GABA circuits in developing cat visual cortex. Science 303, 1678–1681 (2004).
First bidirectional shaping of cortical column size by the direct manipulation of lateral inhibition, as predicted by earlier theoretical models (described in references 17 and18).
Sieghart, W. Structure and pharmacology of γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor subtypes. Pharmacol. Rev. 47, 181–234 (1995).
Lowel, S. Ocular dominance column development: strabismus changes the spacing of adjacent columns in cat visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 14, 7451–7468 (1994).
Horton, J. C. & Hocking, D. R. Intrinsic variability of ocular dominance column periodicity in normal macaque monkeys. J. Neurosci. 16, 7228–7239 (1996).
Kasthuri, N. & Lichtman, J. W. The role of neuronal identity in synaptic competition. Nature 424, 426–430 (2003).
Buffelli, M. et al. Genetic evidence that relative synaptic efficacy biases the outcome of synaptic competition. Nature 424, 430–434 (2003).
An elegant genetic dissection of competition at a visible peripheral synapse.
Somogyi, P., Tamas, G., Lujan, R. & Buhl, E. H. Salient features of synaptic organisation in the cerebral cortex. Brain Res. Rev. 26, 113–135 (1998).
Hensch, T. K. & Fagiolini, M. (eds) Excitatory–Inhibitory Balance: Synapses, Circuits, Systems (Kluwer/Plenum, New York, 2004).
Liu, G. Local structural balance and functional interaction of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in hippocampal dendrites. Nature Neurosci. 7, 373–379 (2004).
Turrigiano, G. G. & Nelson, S. B. Homeostatic plasticity in the developing nervous system. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 5, 97–107 (2004).
Desai, N. S., Cudmore, R. H., Nelson, S. B. & Turrigiano, G. G. Critical periods for experience-dependent synaptic scaling in visual cortex. Nature Neurosci. 5, 783–789 (2002).
Maffei, A., Nelson, S. B. & Turrigiano, G. G. Selective reconfiguration of layer 4 visual cortical circuitry by visual deprivation. Nature Neurosci. 7, 1353–1359 (2004).
Long, M. A., Cruikshank, S. J., Jutras, M. J. & Connors, B. W. Abrupt maturation of a spike-synchronizing mechanism in neocortex. J. Neurosci. 25, 7309–7316 (2005).
Shaw, C. & Cynader, M. Disruption of cortical activity prevents ocular dominance changes in monocularly deprived kittens. Nature 308, 731–734 (1984).
Ramoa, A. S., Paradiso, M. A. & Freeman, R. D. Blockade of intracortical inhibition in kitten striate cortex: effects on receptive field properties and associated loss of ocular dominance plasticity. Exp. Brain Res. 73, 285–296 (1988).
Reiter, H. O., Waitzman, D. M. & Stryker, M. P. Cortical activity blockade prevents ocular dominance plasticity in the kitten visual cortex. Exp. Brain Res. 65, 182–188 (1986).
Bear, M. F., Kleinschmidt, A., Gu, Q. A. & Singer, W. Disruption of experience-dependent synaptic modifications in striate cortex by infusion of an NMDA receptor antagonist. J. Neurosci. 10, 909–925 (1990).
Reiter, H. O. & Stryker, M. P. Neural plasticity without postsynaptic action potentials: less-active inputs become dominant when kitten visual cortical cells are pharmacologically inhibited. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 85, 3623–3627 (1988).
Hata, Y. & Stryker, M. P. Control of thalamocortical afferent rearrangement by postsynaptic activity in developing visual cortex. Science 265, 1732–1735 (1994).
Gordon, J. A. & Stryker, M. P. Experience-dependent plasticity of binocular responses in the primary visual cortex of the mouse. J. Neurosci. 16, 3274–3286 (1996).
Prusky, G. T. & Douglas, R. M. Developmental plasticity of mouse visual acuity. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17, 167–173 (2003).
A behavioural study revealing a clear critical period for amblyopia that matches the shift of single-unit responses in the mouse visual cortex (detailed in reference 38), which indicates that there are no lasting consequence of sub-threshold changes reported with evoked potentials or immediate early gene expression (discussed further in references 172–174).
Soghomonian, J. J. & Martin, D. L. Two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase: why? Trends Pharmacol. 19, 500–505 (1998).
Asada, H. et al. Cleft palate and decreased brain γ-aminobutyric acid in mice lacking the 67-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 94, 6496–6499 (1997).
Tian, N. et al. The role of the synthetic enzyme GAD65 in the control of neuronal γ-aminobutyric acid release. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 96, 12911–12916 (1999).
Hensch, T. K. et al. Local GABA circuit control of experience-dependent plasticity in developing visual cortex. Science 282, 1504–1508 (1998).
The first evidence that GABA-mediated transmission is required for plasticity in vivo. Lays the foundation for a series of studies confirming that critical period timing can be controlled through inhibitory interneurons (discussed further in references 44–48), quite unlike LTP models in vitro that are routinely blocked by inhibition (see references 105, 121).
Fagiolini, M. & Hensch, T. K. Inhibitory threshold for critical-period activation in primary visual cortex. Nature 404, 183–186 (2000).
Iwai, Y., Fagiolini, M., Obata, K. & Hensch, T. K. Rapid critical period induction by tonic inhibition in visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 23, 6695–6702 (2003).
Fagiolini, M. et al. Specific GABAA circuits for visual cortical plasticity. Science 303, 1681–1683 (2004).
Provides striking evidence that not all GABA-mediated connections are involved in critical period induction, which has strong implications for computational models and the design of specific benzodiazepines for use in human infants.
Huang, Z. J. et al. BDNF regulates the maturation of inhibition and the critical period of plasticity in mouse visual cortex. Cell 98, 739–755 (1999).
Hanover, J. L., Huang, Z. J., Tonegawa, S. & Stryker, M. P. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor overexpression induces precocious critical period in mouse visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 19, RC40 (1999).
Castren, E., Zafra, F., Thoenen, H. & Lindholm, D. Light regulates expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in rat visual cortex. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 89, 9444–9448 (1992).
Morales, B., Choi, S. Y. & Kirkwood, A. Dark rearing alters the development of GABAergic transmission in visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 22, 8084–8090 (2002).
Chen, L., Yang, C. & Mower, G. D. Developmental changes in the expression of GABAA receptor subunits (α1, α2, α3) in the cat visual cortex and the effects of dark rearing. Mol. Brain Res. 88, 135–143 (2001).
Mower, G. D. The effect of dark rearing on the time course of the critical period in cat visual cortex. Dev. Brain Res. 58, 151–158 (1991).
Fagiolini, M. et al. Separable features of visual cortical plasticity revealed by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A signaling. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 2854–2859 (2003).
Debunks the 'NR2A subunit switch' hypothesis for critical period closure (see also reference 101). Also reveals distinct molecular pathways for individual receptive field properties.
Gianfranceschi, L. et al. Visual cortex is rescued from the effects of dark rearing by overexpression of BDNF. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 12486–12491 (2003).
Bartoletti, A., Medini, P., Berardi, N. & Maffei, L. Environmental enrichment prevents effects of dark-rearing in the rat visual cortex. Nature Neurosci. 7, 215–216 (2004).
References 54 and 55, along with reference 45, strikingly demonstrate that direct modulation of tonic GABA-mediated function in the cortex is sufficient to trigger the critical period, even in the absence of visual input.
Kawaguchi, Y. & Kubota, Y. GABAergic cell subtypes and their synaptic connections in rat frontal cortex. Cereb. Cortex 7, 476–486 (1997).
Markram, H. et al. Interneurons of the neocortical inhibitory system. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 5, 793–807 (2004).
DeFelipe, J. Types of neurons, synaptic connections and chemical characteristics of cells immunoreactive for calbindin-D28K, parvalbumin and calretinin in the neocortex. J. Chem. Neuroanat. 14, 1–19 (1997).
Del Rio, J. A., De Lecea, L., Ferrer, I. & Soriano, E. The development of parvalbumin-immunoreactivity in the neocortex of the mouse. Dev. Brain Res. 81, 247–259 (1994).
Rudy, B. & McBain, C. J. Kv3 channels: voltage-gated K+ channels designed for high-frequency repetitive firing. Trends Neurosci. 24, 517–526 (2001).
Erisir, A., Lau, D., Rudy, B. & Leonard, C. S. Function of specific K+ channels in sustained high-frequency firing of fast-spiking neocortical interneurons. J. Neurophysiol. 82, 2476–2489 (1999).
Lien, C. C. & Jonas, P. Kv3 potassium conductance is necessary and kinetically optimized for high-frequency action potential generation in hippocampal interneurons. J. Neurosci. 23, 2058–2068 (2003).
Cherubini, E. & Conti, F. Generating diversity at GABAergic synapses. Trends Neurosci. 24, 155–162 (2001).
Rudolph, U., Crestani, F. & Möhler, H. GABAA receptor subtypes: dissecting their pharmacological functions. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 22, 188–194 (2001).
Di Cristo, G. et al. Subcellular domain-restricted GABAergic innervation in primary visual cortex in the absence of sensory and thalamic inputs. Nature Neurosci. 7, 1184–1186 (2004).
Chattopadhyaya, B. et al. Experience and activity-dependent maturation of perisomatic GABAergic innervation in primary visual cortex during a postnatal critical period. J. Neurosci. 24, 9598–9611 (2004).
Buzas, P., Eysel, U. T., Adorjan, P. & Kisvarday, Z. F. Axonal topography of cortical basket cells in relation to orientation, direction, and ocular dominance maps. J. Comp. Neurol. 437, 259–285 (2001).
Klausberger, T., Roberts, J. D. & Somogyi, P. Cell type- and input-specific differences in the number and subtypes of synaptic GABAA receptors in the hippocampus. J. Neurosci. 22, 2513–2521 (2002).
Demonstrates remarkable subcellular sorting of individual GABAA receptor subtypes to receive distinct inhibitory inputs based on α subunit composition.
Nusser, Z., Sieghart, W., Benke, D., Fritschy, J. M. & Somogyi, P. Differential synaptic localization of two major γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor a subunits on hippocampal pyramidal cells. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 93, 11939–11944 (1996).
Härtig, W. et al. Cortical neurons immunoreactive for the potassium channel Kv3.1b subunit are predominantly surrounded by perineuronal nets presumed as a buffering system for cations. Brain Res. 842, 15–29 (1999).
Saghatelyan, A. K. et al. Reduced perisomatic inhibition, increased excitatory transmission, and impaired long-term potentiation in mice deficient for the extra-cellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-R. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 17, 226–240 (2001).
Pizzorusso, T. et al. Reactivation of ocular dominance plasticity in the adult visual cortex. Science 298, 1248–1251 (2002).
The holy grail of critical period studies that showed it is possible to reactivate plasticity in adulthood, achieved by disrupting ECM components of perineuronal nets with chondroitinases. These structures preferentially surround and influence the function of large parvalbumin-positive basket cells (see also references 70 and 71).
Berardi, N., Pizzorusso, T. & Maffei, L. Extracellular matrix and visual cortical plasticity; freeing the synapse. Neuron 44, 905–908 (2004).
Liu, Y., Fields, R. D., Fitzgerald, S., Festoff, B. W. & Nelson, P. G. Proteolytic activity, synapse elimination, and the Hebb synapse. J. Neurobiol. 25, 325–335 (1994).
Shiosaka, S. & Yoshida, S. Synaptic microenvironments — structural plasticity, adhesion molecules, proteases and their inhibitors. Neurosci. Res. 37, 85–89 (2000).
Mataga, N. & Hensch, T. K. in Proteases in Biology and Disease Vol. 3 (eds Lendeckel, U. & Hooper, N.) Chapter 11 (Kluwer/Plenum, New York, in the press).
Qian, Z., Gilbert, M. E., Colicos, M. A., Kandel, E. R. & Kuhl, D. Tissue-plasminogen activator is induced as an immediate-early gene during seizure, kindling and long-term potentiation. Nature 361, 453–457 (1993).
Mataga, N., Nagai, N. & Hensch, T. K. Permissive proteolytic activity for visual cortical plasticity. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 7717–7721 (2002).
Definitive evidence that proteases are required for ocular dominance plasticity through the use of gene-targeted animals, supporting earlier pharmacological studies in cats (detailed in references 79 and 80).
Mataga, N. et al. Enhancement of mRNA expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator by L-threo-3,4-dihydrophenylserine in association with ocular dominance plasticity. Neurosci. Lett. 218, 149–152 (1996).
Müller, C. M. & Griesinger, C. B. Tissue plasminogen activator mediates reverse occlusion plasticity in visual cortex. Nature Neurosci. 1, 47–53 (1998).
Berardi, N., Pizzorusso, T., Ratto, G. M. & Maffei, L. Molecular basis of plasticity in the visual cortex. Trends Neurosci. 26, 369–378 (2003).
Silver, M. A. & Stryker, M. P. Synaptic density in geniculocortical afferents remains constant after monocular deprivation in the cat. J. Neurosci. 19, 10829–10842 (1999).
Grutzendler, J., Kasthuri, N. & Gan, W. B. Long-term dendritic spine stability in the adult cortex. Nature 420, 812–816 (2002).
Majewska, A. & Sur, M. Motility of dendritic spines in visual cortex in vivo: changes during the critical period and effects of visual deprivation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 16024–16029 (2003).
Oray, S., Majewska, A. & Sur, M. Dendritic spine dynamics are regulated by monocular deprivation and extracellular matrix degradation. Neuron 44, 1021–1030 (2004).
Mataga, N., Mizuguchi, Y. & Hensch, T. K. Experience-dependent pruning of dendritic spines in visual cortex by tissue plasminogen activator. Neuron 44, 1031–1041 (2004).
References 85 and 86 reveal the first anatomical events that occur on monocular deprivation. Spine motility followed by transient pruning faithfully reflects competition during the critical period and is mediated by tPA–plasmin in vivo.
Taha, S. & Stryker, M. P. Rapid ocular dominance plasticity requires cortical but not geniculate protein synthesis. Neuron 34, 425–436 (2002).
Pang, P. et al. Cleavage of ProBDNF by tPA/plasmin is essential for long-term hippocampal plasticity. Science 306, 487–491 (2004).
Tyler, W. J. & Pozzo-Miller, L. Miniature synaptic transmission and BDNF modulates dendritic spine growth and form in rat CA1 neurons. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 553, 497–509 (2004).
Miller, K. D. Synaptic economics: competition and cooperation in synaptic plasticity. Neuron 17, 371–374 (1996).
Careful consideration of the theory and cellular events behind the competitive nature of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex.
Barry, M. F. & Ziff, E. B. Receptor trafficking and the plasticity of excitatory synapses. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12, 279–286 (2002).
Takahashi, T., Svoboda, K. & Malinow, R. Experience strengthening transmission by driving AMPA receptors into synapses. Science 299, 1585–1588 (2003).
Allen, C. B., Celikel, T. & Feldman, D. E. Long-term depression induced by sensory deprivation during cortical map plasticity in vivo. Nature Neurosci. 6, 291–299 (2003).
Heynen, A. J. et al. Molecular mechanism for loss of visual cortical responsiveness following brief monocular deprivation. Nature Neurosci. 6, 854–862 (2003).
Flint, A. C., Maisch, U. S., Weishaupt, J. H., Kriegstein, A. R. & Monyer, H. NR2A subunit expression shortens NMDA receptor synaptic currents in developing neocortex. J. Neurosci. 17, 2469–2476 (1997).
Nase, G., Weishaupt, J., Stern, P., Singer, W. & Monyer, H. Genetic and epigenetic regulation of NMDA receptor expression in the rat visual cortex. Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 4320–4326 (1999).
Quinlan, E. M., Philpot, B. D., Huganir, R. L. & Bear, M. F. Rapid, experience-dependent expression of synaptic NMDA receptors in visual cortex in vivo. Nature Neurosci. 2, 352–357 (1999).
Philpot, B. D., Sekhar, A. K., Shouval, H. Z. & Bear, M. F. Visual experience and deprivation bidirectionally modify the composition and function of NMDA receptors in visual cortex. Neuron 29, 157–169 (2001).
Tang, Y. P. et al. Genetic enhancement of learning and memory in mice. Nature 401, 63–69 (1999).
Liu, L. et al. Role of NMDA receptor subtypes in governing the direction of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Science 304, 1021–1024 (2004).
Lu, H. C., Gonzalez, E. & Crair, M. C. Barrel cortex critical period plasticity is independent of changes in NMDA receptor subunit composition. Neuron 32, 619–634 (2001).
Barth, A. L. & Malenka, R. C. NMDAR EPSC kinetics do not regulate the critical period for LTP at thalamocortical synapses. Nature Neurosci. 4, 235–236 (2001).
Datwani, A., Iwasato, T., Itohara, S. & Erzurumlu, R. S. Lesion-induced thalamocortical axonal plasticity in the S1 cortex is independent of NMDA receptor function in excitatory cortical neurons. J. Neurosci. 22, 9171–9175 (2002).
Rebsam, A., Seif, I. & Gaspar, P. Dissociating barrel development and plasticity in the mouse somatosensory cortex. J. Neurosci. 25, 706–710 (2005).
Clever use of the monoamine oxidise A-knockout mouse, whose barrel formation can be rescued by lowering serotonin levels with parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) at ages beyond the critical period for barrel plasticity. Closure of the whisker cautery effect on the barrelfield is independent and probably not determined at the cortical level.
Feldman, D. E. Inhibition and plasticity. Nature Neurosci. 3, 303–304 (2000).
Dudai, Y. Molecular bases of long-term memories: a question of persistence. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 12, 211–216 (2002).
O'Connor, D. H., Wittenberg, G. M. & Wang, S. S. -H. Graded bidirectional synaptic plasticity is composed of switch-like unitary events. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 9679–9684 (2005).
Sajikumar, S., Navakkode, S. & Frey, J. U. Protein synthesis-dependent long-term functional plasticity: methods and techniques. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (in the press).
Jones, M. W. et al. A requirement for the immediate early gene Zif268 in the expression of late LTP and long-term memories. Nature Neurosci. 4, 289–296 (2001).
Mataga, N., Fujishima, S., Condie, B. G. & Hensch, T. K. Experience-dependent plasticity of mouse visual cortex in the absence of the neuronal activity-dependent marker egr1/zif268. J. Neurosci. 21, 9724–9732 (2001).
Baranes, D. et al. Tissue plasminogen activator contributes to the late phase of LTP and to synaptic growth in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Neuron 21, 813–825 (1998).
Neuhoff, H., Roeper, J. & Schweizer, M. Activity-dependent formation of perforated synapses in cultured hippocampal neurons. Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 4241–4250 (1999).
Daw, N. in The Visual Neurosciences Vol. 1 (eds Chalupa, L. & Werner, J. S.) 126–145 (MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, 2004).
Hensch, T. K. Controlling the critical period. Neurosci. Res. 47, 17–22 (2003).
Renger, J. J. et al. Experience-dependent plasticity without long-term depression by type 2 metabotropic glutamate receptors in developing visual cortex. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1041–1046 (2002).
Bartoletti, A. et al. Heterozygous knock-out mice for brain-derived neurotrophic factor show a pathway-specific impairment of long-term potentiation but normal critical period for monocular deprivation. J. Neurosci. 22, 10072–10077 (2002).
Daw, N., Rao, Y., Wang, X. F., Fischer, Q. & Yang, Y. LTP and LTD vary with layer in rodent visual cortex. Vision Res. 44, 3377–3380 (2004).
Zhou, Q., Homma, K. J. & Poo, M. M. Shrinkage of dendritic spines associated with long-term depression of hippocampal synapses. Neuron 44, 749–757 (2004).
Demonstrates that spine shape changes can occur on a fast time scale, but independent of mechanisms that underlie the LTD of synaptic transmission.
Hayashi, Y. & Majewska, A. K. Dendritic spine geometry: functional implication and regulation. Neuron 46, 529–532 (2005).
Yang, Y. et al. Reversible blockade of experience-dependent plasticity by calcineurin in mouse visual cortex. Nature Neurosci. 8, 791–796 (2005).
Wan, H. et al. Benzodiazepine impairment of perirhinal cortical plasticity and recognition memory. Eur. J. Neurosci. 20, 2214–2224 (2004).
Jiang, B., Akaneya, Y., Hata, Y. & Tsumoto, T. Long-term depression is not induced by low-frequency stimulation in rat visual cortex in vivo: a possible preventing role of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor. J. Neurosci. 23, 3761–3770 (2003).
Bi, G. & Poo, M. Synaptic modification by correlated activity: Hebb's postulate revisited. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24, 139–166 (2001).
Song, S., Miller, K. D. & Abbott, L. F. Competitive Hebbian learning through spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. Nature Neurosci. 3, 919–926 (2000).
Pouille, F. & Scanziani, M. Enforcement of temporal fidelity in pyramidal cells by somatic feed-forward inhibition. Science 293, 1159–1163 (2001).
Sanes, J. R. & Lichtman, J. W. Can molecules explain long-term potentiation? Nature Neurosci. 2, 597–604 (1999).
Zhu, Y., Stornetta, R. L. & Zhu, J. J. Chandelier cells control excessive cortical excitation: characteristics of whisker-evoked synaptic responses of layer 2/3 nonpyramidal and pyramidal neurons. J. Neurosci. 24, 5101–5108 (2004).
Galarreta, M. & Hestrin, S. Electrical synapses between GABA-releasing interneurons. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 2, 425–433 (2001).
Meyer, A. H., Katona, I., Blatow, M., Rozov, A. & Monyer, H. In vivo labeling of parvalbumin-positive interneurons and analysis of electrical coupling in identified neurons. J. Neurosci. 22, 7055–7064 (2002).
Galarreta, M. & Hestrin, S. Spike transmission and synchrony detection in networks of GABAergic interneurons. Science 292, 2295–2299 (2001).
Paired recordings from electrically-coupled, parvalbumin-positive cells reveals a novel property of such networks, namely synchrony detection, which could operate on a columnar scale.
Gao, B. & Fritschy, J. M. Selective allocation of GABAA receptors containing the α 1 subunit to neurochemically distinct subpopulations of rat hippocampal interneurons. Eur. J. Neurosci. 6, 837–853 (1994).
Deans, M. R., Gibson, J. R., Sellitto, C., Connors, B. W. & Paul, D. L. Synchronous activity of inhibitory networks in neocortex requires electrical synapses containing connexin36. Neuron 31, 477–485 (2001).
Hormuzdi, S. G. et al. Impaired electrical signaling disrupts gamma frequency oscillations in connexin 36-deficient mice. Neuron 31, 487–495 (2001).
Guldenagel, M. et al. Expression patterns of connexin genes in mouse retina. J. Comp. Neurol. 425, 193–201 (2000).
Dityatev, A. & Schachner, M. Extracellular matrix molecules and synaptic plasticity. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 4, 456–468 (2003).
Lochner, J. E. et al. Real-time imaging of the axonal transport of granules containing a tissue plasminogen activator/green fluorescent protein hybrid. Mol. Biol. Cell 9, 2463–2476 (1998).
Gualandris, A., Jones, T. E., Strickland, S. & Tsirka, S. E. Membrane depolarization induces calcium-dependent secretion of tissue plasminogen activator. J. Neurosci. 16, 2220–2225 (1996).
Parmer, R. J. et al. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is targeted to the regulated secretory pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 1976–1982 (1997).
Collin, T. et al. Developmental changes in parvalbumin regulate presynaptic Ca2+ signaling. J. Neurosci. 25, 96–107 (2005).
Murase, S., Mosser, E. & Schuman, E. M. Depolarization drives β-catenin into neuronal spines promoting changes in synaptic structure and function. Neuron 35, 91–105 (2002).
Tanaka, H. et al. Molecular modification of N-cadherin in response to synaptic activity. Neuron 25, 93–107 (2000).
Strongly suggests that synaptic adhesion is locally controlled and dynamically modulated by neuronal activity through the acquisition of protease resistance by dimerization of N-cadherin on depolarization.
Wannier-Morino, P., Rager, G., Sonderegger, P. & Grabs, D. Expression of neuroserpin in the visual cortex of the mouse during the developmental critical period. Eur. J. Neurosci. 17, 1853–1860 (2003).
Sakaguchi, H. Sex differences in the developmental changes of GABAergic neurons in zebra finch song control nuclei. Exp. Brain Res. 108, 62–68 (1996).
Intriguing evidence that the motor phase of the zebra finch critical period for song acquisition reflects maturation of GABA-containing cells in male nucleus RA.
Freund, T. F., Katona, I. & Piomelli, D. Role of endogenous cannabinoids in synaptic signaling. Physiol. Rev. 83, 1017–1066 (2003).
Soderstrom, K. & Johnson, F. Cannabinoid exposure alters learning of zebra finch vocal patterns. Brain Res. 142, 215–217 (2003).
Knudsen, E. I., Zheng, W. & DeBello, W. M. Traces of learning in the auditory localization pathway. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 11815–11820 (2000).
Knudsen, E. I. Capacity for plasticity in the adult owl auditory system expanded by juvenile experience. Science 279, 1531–1533 (1998).
Demonstrates the power of the critical period in laying down multiple neural representations of early experienced environments that can be reactivated when re-encountered later in life. Active suppression by newly formed GABA circuits prevents confusion among multiple maps (see reference 148).
Zheng, W. & Knudsen, E. I. Functional selection of adaptive auditory space map by GABAA-mediated inhibition. Science 284, 962–965 (1999).
Linkenhoker, B. A. & Knudsen, E. I. Incremental training increases the plasticity of the auditory space map in adult barn owls. Nature 419, 293–296 (2002).
Suggests a new strategy for adult plasticity (without drugs) based on incremental training to cumulatively overcome the anatomical constraints established during the critical period.
Linkenhoker, B. A., von der Ohe, C. G. & Knudsen, E. I. Anatomical traces of juvenile learning in the auditory system of adult barn owls. Nature Neurosci. 8, 93–98 (2005).
Fuchs, J. L. & Salazar, E. Effects of whisker trimming on GABAA receptor binding in the barrel cortex of developing and adult rats. J. Comp. Neurol. 395, 209–216 (1998).
Micheva, K. D. & Beaulieu, C. An anatomical substrate for experience-dependent plasticity of the rat barrel field cortex. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92, 11834–11838 (1995).
Knott, G. W., Quairiaux, C., Genoud, C. & Welker, E. Formation of dendritic spines with GABAergic synapses induced by whisker stimulation in adult mice. Neuron 34, 265–273 (2002).
Demonstrates plasticity of GABA-mediated connections in the adult barrel cortex.
Diamond, M. E., Armstrong-James, M. & Ebner, F. F. Experience-dependent plasticity in adult rat barrel cortex. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 90, 2082–2086 (1993).
Gheusi, G. et al. Importance of newly generated neurons in the adult olfactory bulb for odor discrimination. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 97, 1823–1828 (2000).
Cecchi, G. A., Petreanu, L. T., Alvarez-Buylla, A. & Magnasco, M. O. Unsupervised learning and adaptation in a model of adult neurogenesis. J. Comput. Neurosci. 11, 175–182 (2001).
Yokoi, M., Mori, K. & Nakanishi, S. Refinement of odor molecule tuning by dendro-dendritic synaptic inhibition in the olfactory bulb. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 92, 3371–3375 (1995).
Lagier, S., Carleton, A. & Lledo, P. M. Interplay between local GABA-mediated interneurons and relay neurons generates gamma oscillations in the rat olfactory bulb. J. Neurosci. 24, 4382–4392 (2004).
Murphy, K. M., Beston, B. R., Boley, P. M. & Jones, D. G. Development of human visual cortex: a balance between excitatory and inhibitory plasticity mechanisms. Dev. Psychobiol. 46, 209–221 (2005).
Crucial evidence from human autopsy samples showing slow maturation of GAD65 and GABAA receptor α1-subunits in the visual cortex that better matches the prolonged critical period for binocular vision in this species (see references 6 and 7) than does NMDA-receptor subunit switching (for further information, see references 43, 46 and 53).
De Negri, M., Baglietto, M. G. & Biancheri, R. Electrical status epilepticus in childhood: treatment with short cycles of high dosage benzodiazepine. Brain Dev. 15, 311–312 (1993).
Rubenstein, J. L. & Merzenich, M. M. Model of autism: increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems. Genes Brain Behav. 2, 255–267 (2003).
Möhler, H., Fritschy, J. M., Crestani, F., Hensch, T. & Rudolph, U. Specific GABAA circuits in brain development and therapy. Biochem. Pharmacol. 68, 1685–1690 (2004).
Arckens, L. et al. Cooperative changes in GABA, glutamate and activity levels: the missing link in cortical plasticity. Eur. J. Neurosci. 12, 4222–4232 (2000).
Lodder, J., Luijckx, G., van Raak, L. & Kessels, F. Diazepam treatment to increase the cerebral GABAergic activity in acute stroke: a feasibility study in 104 patients. Cerebrovasc. Dis. 10, 437–440 (2000).
Dani, V. S. et al. Reduced cortical activity due to a shift in the balance between excitation and inhibition in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12560–12565 (2005).
Kalanithi, P. S. A. et al. Altered parvalbumin-positive neuron distribution in basal ganglia of individuals with Tourette syndrome. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13307–13312 (2005).
Lewis, D. A., Hashimoto, T. & Volk, D. W. Cortical inhibitory neurons and schizophrenia. Nature Rev. Neurosci. 6, 312–324 (2005).
Paulsen, O. & Moser, E. I. A model of hippocampal memory encoding and retrieval: GABAergic control of synaptic plasticity. Trends Neurosci. 21, 273–378 (1998).
Miyamoto, H., Katagiri, H. & Hensch, T. Experience-dependent slow-wave sleep development. Nature Neurosci. 6, 553–554 (2003).
Prasad, S. S. et al. Gene expression patterns during enhanced periods of visual cortex plasticity. Neuroscience 111, 35–45 (2002).
Ossipow, V., Pellissier, F., Schaad, O. & Ballivet, M. Gene expression analysis of the critical period in the visual cortex. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 27, 70–83 (2004).
Sawtell, N. B. et al. NMDA receptor-dependent ocular dominance plasticity in adult visual cortex. Neuron 38, 977–985 (2003). Erratum Neuron 39, 727 (2003).
Pham, T. A. et al. A semi-persistent adult ocular dominance plasticity in visual cortex is stabilized by activated CREB. Learn. Mem. 11, 738–747 (2004).
Tagawa, Y., Kanold, P. O., Majdan, M. & Shatz, C. J. Multiple periods of functional ocular dominance plasticity in mouse visual cortex. Nature Neurosci. 8, 380–388 (2005).
Fagiolini, M., Pizzorusso, T., Berardi, N., Domenici, L. & Maffei, L. Functional postnatal development of the rat primary visual cortex and the role of visual experience: dark rearing and monocular deprivation. Vision Res. 34, 709–720 (1994).
Wang, X., Merzenich, M. M., Sameshima, K. & Jenkins, W. M. Remodelling of hand representation in adult cortex determined by timing of tactile stimulation. Nature 378, 71–75 (1995).
Kilgard, M. P. & Merzenich, M. M. Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity. Science 279, 1714–1718 (1998).
Bao, S., Chan, V. T. & Merzenich, M. M. Cortical remodelling induced by activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. Nature 412, 79–83 (2001).
Two studies that demonstrate the potential for neuromodulatory systems (attention) to restore near critical period levels of plasticity to the adult brain.
Miyamoto, H. & Hensch, T. K. Reciprocal interaction of sleep and synaptic plasticity. Mol. Interv. 3, 404–417 (2003).
Hinkle, D. J. & Macdonald, R. L. β subunit phosphorylation selectively increases fast desensitization and prolongs deactivation of α1β1γ2L and α1β3γ2L GABAA receptor currents. J. Neurosci. 23, 11698–11710 (2003).
Fischer, Q. S. et al. Requirement for the RIIβ isoform of PKA, but not calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase, in visual cortical plasticity. J. Neurosci. 24, 9049–9058 (2004).
McGee, A. et al. Experience-driven plasticity of visual cortex limited by myelin and Nogo receptor. Science 309, 2222–2226 (2005).
Mechelli, A. et al. Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature 431, 757 (2004).
Bengtsson, S. L. et al. Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. Nature Neurosci. 8, 1148–1150 (2005).
Fiumelli, H., Jabaudon, D., Magistretti, P. J. & Martin, J. -L. BDNF stimulates expression, activity and release of tissue-type plasminogen activator in mouse cortical neurons. Eur. J. Neurosci. 11, 1639–1646 (1999).
Lewis, T. L. & Maurer, D. Multiple sensitive periods in human visual development: evidence from visually deprived children. Dev. Psychobiol. 46, 163–183 (2005).