We report the twining handedness of Codonopsis pilosula, which has either a left- or right-handed helix among different plants, among different tillers within a single plant, and among different branches within a single tiller. The handedness was randomly distributed among different plants, among the tillers within the same plants, but not among the branches within the same tillers. Moreover, the handedness of the stems can be strongly influenced by external forces, i.e. the compulsory left and right forming inclined to produce more left- and right-handed twining stems, respectively, and the reversing could make a left-handed stem to be right-handed and vice versa. We also discuss the probable mechanisms these curious cases happen.
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Lin, G., Zhao, F., Nevo, E. et al. Codonopsis pilosula twines either to the left or to the right. Nat Prec (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/npre.2012.7026.1
- twining plant
- external force