Today, light fields of controlled and measured waveform can be used to guide electron motion in atoms and molecules with attosecond precision. Here, we demonstrate attosecond control of collective electron motion in plasmas driven by extreme intensity (≈1018 W cm−2) light fields. Controlled few-cycle near-infrared waves are tightly focused at the interface between vacuum and a solid-density plasma, where they launch and guide subcycle motion of electrons from the plasma with characteristic energies in the multi-kiloelectronvolt range—two orders of magnitude more than has been achieved so far in atoms and molecules. The basic spectroscopy of the coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation emerging from the light–plasma interaction allows us to probe this collective motion of charge with sub-200 as resolution. This is an important step towards attosecond control of charge dynamics in laser-driven plasma experiments.
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The authors would like to thank M. Ivanov for fruitful discussions, E. Lefebvre for providing the PIC code CALDER and R. Nuter for modifying this code to include the CE phase parameter. The 2D PIC calculations were performed using the computing resources of the ‘Grand Equipement National de Calcul Intensif’ (GENCI), under project number 2011-056057, and those of the ‘Centre de Calcul Recherche et Technologie’ (CCRT). Financial support was received from the Agence Nationale pour la Recherche through programme Chaire d’Excellence 2004 and ANR-09-JC-JC-0063 (UBICUIL). A.B. acknowledges financial support from the réseaux thématiques de recherche avancée—Triangle de la Physique and F.Q. from the European Research Council (ERC grant agreement no 240013).
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Borot, A., Malvache, A., Chen, X. et al. Attosecond control of collective electron motion in plasmas. Nature Phys 8, 416–421 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphys2269
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