On-chip generation of high-order single-photon W-states


Quantum superposition is the quantum-mechanical property of a particle whereby it inhabits several of its possible quantum states simultaneously. Ideally, this permissible coexistence of quantum states, as defined on any degree of freedom, whether spin, frequency or spatial, can be used to fully exploit the information capacity of the associated physical system. In quantum optics, single photons are the quanta of light, and their coherence properties allow them to establish entangled superpositions between a large number of channels, making them favourable for realizations of quantum information processing schemes. In particular, single-photon W-states (that is, states exhibiting a uniform distribution of the photons across multiple modes) represent a class of multipartite maximally-entangled quantum states that are highly robust to dissipation. Here, we report on the generation and verification of single-photon W-states involving up to 16 spatial modes, and exploit their underlying multi-mode superposition for the on-chip generation of genuine random numbers.

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Figure 1: Schematic of the experimental set-up.
Figure 2: Generation of high-order photonic W-states on an integrated platform.
Figure 3: Interferometric validation of W-states, given a priori knowledge of a single-photon input state.

Change history

  • 18 September 2014

    In the version of this Article originally published, the contribution of Demetrios N. Christodoulides to conceiving the idea behind the work was not acknowledged in the Author Contributions section. This error has now been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the Article.


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The authors thank K. Schwaiger, B. Kraus and G. Weihs for helpful discussions. Financial support by the German Ministry of Education and Research (Center for Innovation Competence programme, grant no. 03Z1HN31), the Thuringian Ministry for Education, Science and Culture (Research group Spacetime, grant no. 11027-514), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant no. NO462/6-1), the German–Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development (grant no. 1157-127.14/2011) and the M. Heinrich was supported by the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (grant no. LPDS 2012-01) is gratefully acknowledged.

Author information




M.G., R.H., A.P.-L. and D.N.C. conceived the idea. M.G., R.H and R.K. designed the samples and performed the measurements. A.P.-L., M.G., R.H and R.K. analysed the data. A.S. supervised the project. All authors discussed the results and co-wrote the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alexander Szameit.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Gräfe, M., Heilmann, R., Perez-Leija, A. et al. On-chip generation of high-order single-photon W-states. Nature Photon 8, 791–795 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2014.204

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