Cristofanilli, M. et al. Circulating tumor cells, disease progression, and survival in metastatic breast cancer. New Engl. J Med. 351, 781–791 (2004).
Nagrath, S. et al. Isolation of rare circulating tumour cells in cancer patients by microchip technology. Nature 450, 1235–1239 (2007).
Maheswaran, S. et al. Detection of mutations in EGFR in circulating lung-cancer cells. N. Engl. J. Med. 359, 366–377 (2008).
Willipinski-Stapelfeldt, B. et al. Changes in cytoskeletal protein composition indicative of an epithelial–mesenchymal transition in human micrometastatic and primary breast carcinoma cells. Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 8006–8014 (2005).
Bednarz-Knoll, N., Alix-Panabières, C. & Pantel, K. Plasticity of disseminating cancer cells in patients with epithelial malignancies. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 31, 673–687 (2012).
Pantel, K., Brakenhoff, R. H. & Brandt, B. Detection, clinical relevance and specific biological properties of disseminating tumour cells. Nature Rev. Cancer 8, 329–340 (2008).
Lin, H. K. et al. Portable filter-based microdevice for detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells. Clin. Cancer Res. 16, 5011–5018 (2010).
Dobrovolskaia, M. A. & McNeil, S. E. Immunological properties of engineered nanomaterials. Nature Nanotech. 2, 469–478 (2007).
Xia, X-R., Monteiro-Riviere, N. A. & Riviere, J. E. An index for characterization of nanomaterials in biological systems. Nature Nanotech. 5, 671–675 (2010).
Wang, S. et al. Three-dimensional nanostructured substrates toward efficient capture of circulating tumor cells. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 121, 9132–9135 (2009).
Lee, S-K. et al. Nanowire substrate-based laser scanning cytometry for quantitation of circulating tumor cells. Nano Lett. 12, 2697–2704 (2012).
Zhang, N. et al. Electrospun TiO2 nanofiber-based cell capture assay for detecting circulating tumor cells from colorectal and gastric cancer patients. Adv. Mater. 24, 2756–2760 (2012).
Liu, Z., Robinson, J. T., Sun, X. & Dai, H. PEGylated nanographene oxide for delivery of water-insoluble cancer drugs. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130, 10876–10877 (2008).
Mohanty, N. & Berry, V. Graphene-based single-bacterium resolution biodevice and DNA transistor: interfacing graphene derivatives with nanoscale and microscale biocomponents. Nano Lett. 8, 4469–4476 (2008).
Ramanathan, T. et al. Functionalized graphene sheets for polymer nanocomposites. Nature Nanotech. 3, 327–331 (2008).
Dreyer, D. R., Park, S., Bielawski, C. W. & Ruoff, R. S. The chemistry of graphene oxide. Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 228–240 (2010).
Sun, X. et al. Nano-graphene oxide for cellular imaging and drug delivery. Nano Res. 1, 203–212 (2008).
Eda, G., Fanchini, G. & Chhowalla, M. Large-area ultrathin films of reduced graphene oxide as a transparent and flexible electronic material. Nature Nanotech. 3, 270–274 (2008).
Li, X. et al. Highly conducting graphene sheets and Langmuir–Blodgett films. Nature Nanotech. 3, 538–542 (2008).
Wang, H., Wang, X., Li, X. & Dai, H. Chemical self-assembly of graphene sheets. Nano Res. 2, 336–342 (2009).
Sieuwerts, A. M. et al. Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibodies and the detection of circulating normal-like breast tumor cells. J. Natl Cancer Inst. 101, 61–66 (2009).
Salic, A. & Mitchison, T. J. A chemical method for fast and sensitive detection of DNA synthesis in vivo. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2415–2420 (2008).
Lustberg, M., Jatana, K. R., Zborowski, M. & Chalmers, J. J. Emerging technologies for CTC detection based on depletion of normal cells. Recent Results Cancer Res. 195, 97–110 (2012).
Stott, S. L. et al. Isolation of circulating tumor cells using a microvortex-generating herringbone-chip. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 18392–18397 (2010).
Mego, M. et al. Characterization of metastatic breast cancer patients with nondetectable circulating tumor cells. Int. J. Cancer 129, 417–423 (2011).
Alix-Panabières, C., Schwarzenbach, H. & Pantel, K. Circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA. Annu. Rev. Med. 63, 199–215 (2012).
Ozkumur, E. et al. Inertial focusing for tumor antigen-dependent and -independent sorting of rare circulating tumor cells. Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 179ra147 (2013).
Krebs, M. G. et al. Analysis of circulating tumor cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer using epithelial marker-dependent and -independent approaches. J. Thorac. Oncol. 7, 306–315 (2012).
Edgerton, S. M., Moore, D. II, Merkel, D. & Thor, A. D. erbB-2 (HER-2) and breast cancer progression. Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol. 11, 214–221 (2003).
Amir, E. et al. Tissue confirmation of disease recurrence in breast cancer patients: pooled analysis of multi-centre, multi-disciplinary prospective studies. Cancer Treat. Rev. 38, 708–714 (2012).
Fehm, T. et al. HER2 status of circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic breast cancer: a prospective, multicenter trial. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 124, 403–412 (2010).
Riethdorf, S. et al. Detection and HER2 expression of circulating tumor cells: prospective monitoring in breast cancer patients treated in the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro trial. Clin. Cancer Res. 16, 2634–2645 (2010).
Pestrin, M. et al. Final results of a multicenter phase II clinical trial evaluating the activity of single-agent Lapatinib in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer and HER2-positive circulating tumor cells. A proof-of-concept study. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 134, 283–289 (2012).