Nanodiamonds have excellent mechanical and optical properties, high surface areas and tunable surface structures. They are also non-toxic, which makes them well suited to biomedical applications. Here we review the synthesis, structure, properties, surface chemistry and phase transformations of individual nanodiamonds and clusters of nanodiamonds. In particular we discuss the rational control of the mechanical, chemical, electronic and optical properties of nanodiamonds through surface doping, interior doping and the introduction of functional groups. These little gems have a wide range of potential applications in tribology, drug delivery, bioimaging and tissue engineering, and also as protein mimics and a filler material for nanocomposites.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Nature Communications Open Access 19 September 2022
Nanoparticle classification, physicochemical properties, characterization, and applications: a comprehensive review for biologists
Journal of Nanobiotechnology Open Access 07 June 2022
Nature Communications Open Access 17 March 2022
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $9.92 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Danilenko, V. V. On the history of the discovery of nanodiamond synthesis. Phys. Solid State 46, 595–599 (2004). This paper, by the inventor of detonation nanodiamond, describes the history of the discovery of nanodiamonds.
Greiner, N. R., Phillips, D. S., Johnson, J. D. & Volk, F. Diamonds in detonation soot. Nature 333, 440–442 (1988).
Ozawa, M. et al. Preparation and behavior of brownish, clear nanodiamond colloids. Adv. Mater. 19, 1201–1206 (2007).
Chang, Y. R. et al. Mass production and dynamic imaging of fluorescent nanodiamonds. Nature Nanotech. 3, 284–288 (2008). Luminescent nanodiamonds can be mass-produced by irradiating synthetic diamond nanocrystallites with He ions; nanodiamonds produced with this method have been used in a commercial product.
Mochalin, V. N. & Gogotsi, Y. Wet chemistry route to hydrophobic blue fluorescent nanodiamond. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 4594–4595 (2009).
Maze, J. R. et al. Nanoscale magnetic sensing with an individual electronic spin in diamond. Nature 455, 644–647 (2008).
Krueger, A. Diamond nanoparticles: Jewels for chemistry and physics. Adv. Mater. 20, 2445–2449 (2008).
Zheng, W. W. et al. Organic functionalization of ultradispersed nanodiamond: Synthesis and applications. J. Mater. Chem. 19, 8432–8441 (2009).
Spitsyn, B. V. et al. Inroad to modification of detonation nanodiamond. Diamond Relat. Mater. 15, 296–299 (2006).
Behler, K. D. et al. Nanodiamond–polymer composite fibers and coatings. ACS Nano 3, 363–369 (2009).
Zhang, Q. et al. Fluorescent PLLA–nanodiamond composites for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 32, 87–94 (2011). This paper reports that a nanodiamond–poly( L -lactic acid) composite can be used for bone tissue engineering.
Wang, D. H., Tan, L. S., Huang, H. J., Dai, L. M. & Osawa, E. In-situ nanocomposite synthesis: Arylcarbonylation and grafting of primary diamond nanoparticles with a poly(ether–ketone) in polyphosphoric acid. Macromolecules 42, 114–124 (2009).
Cheng, J. L., He, J. P., Li, C. X. & Yang, Y. L. Facile approach to functionalize nanodiamond particles with V-shaped polymer brushes. Chem. Mater. 20, 4224–4230 (2008).
Mochalin, V. N. et al. Covalent incorporation of aminated nanodiamond into an epoxy polymer network. ACS Nano 5, 7494–7502 (2011). Demonstration of covalent incorporation of aminated nanodiamond into epoxy, resulting in a composite with improved mechanical properties.
Shimkunas, R. A. et al. Nanodiamond–insulin complexes as pH-dependent protein delivery vehicles. Biomaterials 30, 5720–5728 (2009).
Purtov, K. V., Petunin, A. I., Burov, A. E., Puzyr, A. P. & Bondar, V. S. Nanodiamonds as carriers for address delivery of biologically active substances. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 5, 631–636 (2010).
Alhaddad, A. et al. Nanodiamond as a vector for siRNA delivery to Ewing sarcoma cells. Small 7, 3087–3095 (2011).
Osswald, S., Yushin, G., Mochalin, V., Kucheyev, S. O. & Gogotsi, Y. Control of sp2/sp3 carbon ratio and surface chemistry of nanodiamond powders by selective oxidation in air. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11635–11642 (2006). Nanodiamonds can be purified by the selective oxidation of non-diamond carbon in air; this method has been used to produce high-purity nanodiamond powders on an industrial scale.
Shenderova, O. et al. Surface chemistry and properties of ozone-purified detonation nanodiamonds. J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 9827–9837 (2011). Comprehensive description of the distinctive properties of ozone-purified detonation nanodiamond.
Schrand, A. M. et al. in Safety of Nanoparticles. From Manufacturing to Medical Applications. Nanostructure Science and Technology (ed. Webster, T. J.) 159–187 (Springer, 2009).
Schrand, A. M., Hens, S. A. C. & Shenderova, O. A. Nanodiamond particles: Properties and perspectives for bioapplications. Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 34, 18–74 (2009).
Schrand, A. M. et al. Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic? J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 2–7 (2007).
Yang, G. W., Wang, J. B. & Liu, Q. X. Preparation of nano-crystalline diamonds using pulsed laser induced reactive quenching. J. Phys. Condens. Mat. 10, 7923–7927 (1998).
Boudou, J. P. et al. High yield fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds. Nanotechnology 20, 235602 (2009).
Frenklach, M. et al. Induced nucleation of diamond powder. Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 546–548 (1991).
Gogotsi, Y. G. et al. Structure of carbon produced by hydrothermal treatment of β-SiC powder. J. Mater. Chem. 6, 595–604 (1996).
Welz, S., Gogotsi, Y. & McNallan, M. J. Nucleation, growth, and graphitization of diamond nanocrystals during chlorination of carbides. J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4207–4214 (2003).
Daulton, T. L., Kirk, M. A., Lewis, R. S. & Rehn, L. E. Production of nanodiamonds by high-energy ion irradiation of graphite at room temperature. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 175, 12–20 (2001).
Banhart, F. & Ajayan, P. M. Carbon onions as nanoscopic pressure cells for diamond formation. Nature 382, 433–435 (1996).
Galimov, É. et al. Experimental corroboration of the synthesis of diamond in the cavitation process. Dokl. Phys. 49, 150–153 (2004).
Guillois, O., Ledoux, G. & Reynaud, C. Diamond infrared emission bands in circumstellar media. Astrophys. J. 521, L133–L136 (1999).
Goto, M. et al. Spatially resolved 3 μm spectroscopy of Elias 1: Origin of diamonds in protoplanetary disks. Astrophys. J. 693, 610–616 (2009).
Dahl, J. E., Liu, S. G. & Carlson, R. M. K. Isolation and structure of higher diamondoids, nanometer-sized diamond molecules. Science 299, 96–99 (2003).
Vaijayanthimala, V. & Chang, H. C. Functionalized fluorescent nanodiamonds for biomedical applications. Nanomedicine 4, 47–55 (2009).
Xing, Y. & Dai, L. Nanodiamonds for nanomedicine. Nanomedicine 4, 207–218 (2009).
Barnard, A. S. Diamond standard in diagnostics: Nanodiamond biolabels make their mark. Analyst 134, 1751–1764 (2009).
Hui, Y. Y., Cheng, C-L. & Chang, H-C. Nanodiamonds for optical bioimaging. J. Phys. D 43, 374021 (2010).
Viecelli, J. A., Bastea, S., Glosli, J. N. & Ree, F. H. Phase transformations of nanometer size carbon particles in shocked hydrocarbons and explosives. J. Chem. Phys. 115, 2730–2736 (2001).
Danilenko, V. V. in Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Ultrananocrystalline Diamond (Proceedings of NATO Advanced Research Workshop) (eds Gruen, D. Shenderova O. & Vul', A.) 181–198 (Springer, 2005).
Badziag, P., Verwoerd, W. S., Ellis, W. P. & Greiner, N. R. Nanometre-sized diamonds are more stable than graphite. Nature 343, 244–245 (1990).
Barnard, A. S., Russo, S. P. & Snook, I. K. Structural relaxation and relative stability of nanodiamond morphologies. Diamond Relat. Mater. 12, 1867–1872 (2003).
Barnard, A. S. & Sternberg, M. Crystallinity and surface electrostatics of diamond nanocrystals. J. Mater. Chem. 17, 4811–4819 (2007).
Raty, J. Y. & Galli, G. Ultradispersity of diamond at the nanoscale. Nature Mater. 2, 792–795 (2003).
Lai, L. & Barnard, A. S. Modeling the thermostability of surface functionalisation by oxygen, hydroxyl, and water on nanodiamonds. Nanoscale 3, 2566–2575 (2011).
Lai, L. & Barnard, A. S. Stability of nanodiamond surfaces exposed to N, NH, and NH2 . J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 6218–6228, (2011).
Aleksenskiy, A., Baidakova, M., Osipov, V. & Vul', A. in Nanodiamonds. Applications in Biology and Nanoscale Medicine (ed. Ho, D.) 55–79 (Springer, 2010).
Vlasov, I. I. et al. Nitrogen and luminescent nitrogen-vacancy defects in detonation nanodiamond. Small 6, 687–694 (2010).
Shenderova, O. A. & Gruen, D. M. Ultrananocrystalline Diamond: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications (William Andrew, 2006). First book in English on Russian research on detonation nanodiamonds.
Dolmatov, V. Y. Detonation synthesis ultradispersed diamonds: Properties and applications. Usp. Khim. 70, 687–708 (2001).
Williams, O. A. et al. Size-dependent reactivity of diamond nanoparticles. ACS Nano 4, 4824–4830 (2010).
Ho, D. Nanodiamonds Applications in Biology and Nanoscale Medicine. (Springer, 2010).
Fedyanina, O. N. & Nesterenko, P. N. Regularities of chromatographic retention of phenols on microdispersed sintered detonation nanodiamond in aqueous-organic solvents. Russ. J. Phys. Ch. A 84, 476–480 (2010).
Huang, H., Pierstorff, E., Osawa, E. & Ho, D. Active nanodiamond hydrogels for chemotherapeutic delivery. Nano Lett. 7, 3305–3314 (2007).
Osawa, E. Recent progress and perspectives in single-digit nanodiamond. Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 2018–2022 (2007). Review article on the deagglomeration of detonation nanodiamond into 4–5 nm nanoparticles.
Aleksenskiy, A. E., Eydelman, E. D. & Vul, A. Y. Deagglomeration of detonation nanodiamonds. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Lett. 3, 68–74 (2011).
Pentecost, A., Gour, S., Mochalin, V., Knoke, I. & Gogotsi, Y. Deaggregation of nanodiamond powders using salt- and sugar-assisted milling. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2, 3289–3294 (2010).
Krueger, A., Stegk, J., Liang, Y. J., Lu, L. & Jarre, G. Biotinylated nanodiamond: Simple and efficient functionalization of detonation diamond. Langmuir 24, 4200–4204 (2008).
Liang, Y. J. et al. Deagglomeration and surface modification of thermally annealed nanoscale diamond. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 354, 23–30 (2011).
Bondar, V. S. & Puzyr, A. P. Nanodiamonds for biological investigations. Phys. Solid State 46, 716–719 (2004).
Shenderova, O. et al. Modification of detonation nanodiamonds by heat treatment in air. Diamond Relat. Mater. 15, 1799–1803 (2006).
Larionova, I. et al. Properties of individual fractions of detonation nanodiamond. Diamond Relat. Mater. 15, 1804–1808 (2006).
Grichko, V., Tyler, T., Grishko, V. I. & Shenderova, O. Nanodiamond particles forming photonic structures. Nanotechnology 19, 225201 (2008).
Morita, Y. et al. A facile and scalable process for size-controllable separation of nanodiamond particles as small as 4 nm. Small 4, 2154–2157 (2008).
Meinhardt, T., Lang, D., Dill, H. & Krueger, A. Pushing the functionality of diamond nanoparticles to new horizons: Orthogonally functionalized nanodiamond using click chemistry. Adv. Funct. Mater. 21, 494–500 (2011).
Krueger, A. The structure and reactivity of nanoscale diamond. J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1485–1492 (2008).
Arnault, J. C. Surface chemical modifications and surface reactivity of nanodiamonds hydrogenated by CVD plasma. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 11481–11487 (2011).
Liu, Y., Gu, Z. N., Margrave, J. L. & Khabashesku, V. N. Functionalization of nanoscale diamond powder: Fluoro-, alkyl-, amino-, and amino acid-nanodiamond derivatives. Chem. Mater. 16, 3924–3930 (2004).
Lisichkin, G., Korol'kov, V., Tarasevich, B., Kulakova, I. & Karpukhin, A. Photochemical chlorination of nanodiamond and interaction of its modified surface with C-nucleophiles. Russ. Chem. Bull. 55, 2212–2219 (2006).
Krueger, A. & Boedeker, T. Deagglomeration and functionalisation of detonation nanodiamond with long alkyl chains. Diamond Relat. Mater. 17, 1367–1370 (2008).
Liang, Y. J., Ozawa, M. & Krueger, A. A general procedure to functionalize agglomerating nanoparticles demonstrated on nanodiamond. ACS Nano 3, 2288–2296 (2009).
Krueger, A. New carbon materials: Biological applications of functionalized nanodiamond materials. Chem. Eur. J. 14, 1382–1390 (2008).
Kruger, A., Liang, Y. J., Jarre, G. & Stegk, J. Surface functionalisation of detonation diamond suitable for biological applications. J. Mater. Chem. 16, 2322–2328 (2006).
Jarre, G., Liang, Y. J., Betz, P., Lang, D. & Krueger, A. Playing the surface game-Diels-Alder reactions on diamond nanoparticles. Chem. Commun. 47, 544–546 (2011).
Yeap, W. S., Chen, S. M. & Loh, K. P. Detonation nanodiamond: An organic platform for the Suzuki coupling of organic molecules. Langmuir 25, 185–191 (2009).
Mochalin, V., Osswald, S. & Gogotsi, Y. Contribution of functional groups to the Raman spectrum of nanodiamond powders. Chem. Mater. 21, 273–279 (2009).
Kulakova, I. Surface chemistry of nanodiamonds. Phys. Solid State 46, 636–643 (2004).
Jiang, T. L., Xu, K. & Ji, S. F. FTIR studies on the spectral changes of the surface functional groups of ultradispersed diamond powder synthesized by explosive detonation after treatment in hydrogen, nitrogen, methane and air at different temperatures. J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 92, 3401–3406 (1996).
Ji, S. F., Jiang, T. L., Xu, K. & Li, S. B. FTIR study of the adsorption of water on ultradispersed diamond powder surface. Appl. Surf. Sci. 133, 231–238 (1998).
Korolkov, V. V., Kulakova, I. I., Tarasevich, B. N. & Lisichkin, G. V. Dual reaction capacity of hydrogenated nanodiamond. Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 2129–2132 (2007).
Ferrari, A. C. & Robertson, J. Raman spectroscopy of amorphous, nanostructured, diamond-like carbon, and nanodiamond. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 362, 2477–2512, (2004).
Mykhaylyk, O. O., Solonin, Y. M., Batchelder, D. N. & Brydson, R. Transformation of nanodiamond into carbon onions: A comparative study by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy. J. Appl. Phys. 97, 074302 (2005).
Obraztsova, E. D. et al. Raman and photoluminescence investigations of nanograined diamond films. Nanostruct. Mater. 6, 827–830 (1995).
Yushin, G. N., Osswald, S., Padalko, V. I., Bogatyreva, G. P. & Gogotsi, Y. Effect of sintering on structure of nanodiamond. Diamond Relat. Mater. 14, 1721–1729 (2005).
Osswald, S., Mochalin, V. N., Havel, M., Yushin, G. & Gogotsi, Y. Phonon confinement effects in the Raman spectrum of nanodiamond. Phys. Rev. B 80, 075419 (2009).
Li, W. F., Irle, S. & Witek, H. A. Convergence in the evolution of nanodiamond Raman spectra with particle size: A theoretical investigation. ACS Nano 4, 4475–4486 (2010).
Filik, J. et al. Raman spectroscopy of nanocrystalline diamond: An ab initio approach. Phys. Rev. B 74, 035423 (2006).
Korobov, M. V., Avramenko, N. V., Bogachev, A. G., Rozhkova, N. N. & Osawa, E. Nanophase of water in nano-diamond gel. J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 7330–7334 (2007).
Rondin, L. et al. Surface-induced charge state conversion of nitrogen-vacancy defects in nanodiamonds. Phys. Rev. B 82, 115449 (2010).
Slepetz, B., Laszlo, I., Gogotsi, Y., Hyde-Volpe, D. & Kertesz, M. Characterization of large vacancy clusters in diamond from a generational algorithm using tight binding density functional theory. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 14017–14022 (2010).
Neumann, P. et al. Single-shot readout of a single nuclear spin. Science 329, 542–544 (2010).
Balasubramanian, G. et al. Nanoscale imaging magnetometry with diamond spins under ambient conditions. Nature 455, 648–651 (2008).
Bradac, C. et al. Observation and control of blinking nitrogen-vacancy centres in discrete nanodiamonds. Nature Nanotech. 5, 345–349 (2010).
Tisler, J. et al. Highly efficient FRET from single NV center in nanodiamonds to single organic molecule. ACS Nano 5, 7893–7898 (2011).
Tisler, J. et al. Fluorescence and spin properties of defects in single digit nanodiamonds. ACS Nano 3, 1959–1965 (2009).
Shenderova, O. et al. Nitrogen control in nanodiamond produced by detonation shock-wave-assisted synthesis. J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 14014–14024 (2011).
Baranov, P. G. et al. Enormously high concentrations of fluorescent nitrogen-vacancy centers fabricated by sintering of detonation nanodiamonds. Small 7, 1533–1537 (2011).
Hens, S. C. et al. Nanodiamond bioconjugate probes and their collection by electrophoresis. Diamond Relat. Mater. 17, 1858–1866 (2008).
Huang, L. C. L. & Chang, H. C. Adsorption and immobilization of cytochrome C on nanodiamonds. Langmuir 20, 5879–5884 (2004).
Schrand, A. M., Lin, J. B., Hens, S. C. & Hussain, S. M. Temporal and mechanistic tracking of cellular uptake dynamics with novel surface fluorophore-bound nanodiamonds. Nanoscale 3, 435–445 (2011).
Faklaris, O. et al. Photoluminescent diamond nanoparticles for cell labeling: Study of the uptake mechanism in mammalian cells. ACS Nano 3, 3955–3962 (2009).
McGuinness, L. P. et al. Quantum measurement and orientation tracking of fluorescent nanodiamonds inside living cells. Nature Nanotech. 6, 358–363 (2011).
Yuan, Y. et al. Pulmonary toxicity and translocation of nanodiamonds in mice. Diamond Relat. Mater. 19, 291–299 (2010).
Mohan, N., Chen, C. S., Hsieh, H. H., Wu, Y. C. & Chang, H. C. In vivo imaging and toxicity assessments of fluorescent nanodiamonds in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nano Lett. 10, 3692–3699 (2010). Demonstration of the biocompatibility of nanodiamond in worm models.
Chow, E. K. et al. Nanodiamond therapeutic delivery agents mediate enhanced chemoresistant tumor treatment. Sci. Transl. Med. 3, 73ra21 (2011). Demonstration that nanodiamonds can enable significant improvements to drug delivery efficacy and safety in multiple tumour models in vivo.
Shenderova, O., Hens, S. & McGuire, G. Seeding slurries based on detonation nanodiamond in DMSO. Diamond Relat. Mater. 19, 260–267 (2010).
Manus, L. M. et al. Gd(III)-nanodiamond conjugates for MRI contrast enhancement. Nano Lett. 10, 484–489 (2010).
Saini, G. et al. Core-shell diamond as a support for solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal. Chem. 82, 4448–4456 (2010).
Wu, C. C., Han, C. C. & Chang, H. C. Applications of surface-functionalized diamond nanoparticles for mass-spectrometry-based proteomics. J. Chin. Chem. Soc. 57, 583–594 (2010).
Pech, D. et al. Ultrahigh-power micrometre-sized supercapacitors based on onion-like carbon. Nature Nanotech. 5, 651–654 (2010).
Shenderova, O. et al. Detonation nanodiamond and onion-like carbon: Applications in composites. Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 2245–2251 (2008).
Shenderova, O. et al. Nanodiamond and onion-like carbon polymer nanocomposites. Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1213–1217 (2007).
Su, D. S. et al. Oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over ultra-dispersed diamond and onion-like carbon. Carbon 45, 2145–2151 (2007).
Zhang, J. A. et al. Surface chemistry and catalytic reactivity of a nanodiamond in the steam-free dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 8640–8644 (2010).
Holt, K. B. Diamond at the nanoscale: Applications of diamond nanoparticles from cellular biomarkers to quantum computing. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 365, 2845–2861 (2007).
Huang, H., Dai, L., Wang, D. H., Tan, L-S. & Osawa, E. Large-scale self-assembly of dispersed nanodiamonds. J. Mater. Chem. 18, 1347–1352 (2008).
Ivanov, M. G., Pavlyshko, S. V., Ivanov, D. M., Petrov, I. & Shenderova, O. Synergistic compositions of colloidal nanodiamond as lubricant-additive. J Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28, 869–877 (2010).
Chou, C. C. & Lee, S. H. Tribological behavior of nanodiamond-dispersed lubricants on carbon steels and aluminum alloy. Wear 269, 757–762 (2010).
Kato, T., Lin, W. M. & Osawa, E. Lubrication property of single-digit-nanodiamond in an aqueous colloid. J. Jpn. Soc. Tribol. 54, 122–129 (2009).
Matsumoto, N., Joly-Pottuz, L., Kinoshita, H. & Ohmae, N. Application of onion-like carbon to micro and nanotribology. Diamond Relat. Mater. 16, 1227–1230 (2007).
Neitzel, I., Mochalin, V., Knoke, I., Palmese, G. R. & Gogotsi, Y. Mechanical properties of epoxy composites with high contents of nanodiamond. Compos. Sci. Technol. 71, 710–716 (2011).
Maitra, U., Prasad, K. E., Ramamurty, U. & Rao, C. N. R. Mechanical properties of nanodiamond-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. Solid State Commun. 149, 1693–1697 (2009).
Zhang, Q., Naito, K., Tanaka, Y. & Kagawa, Y. Grafting polyimides from nanodiamonds. Macromolecules 41, 536–538 (2008).
Lee, J. Y., Lim, D. P. & Lim, D. S. Tribological behavior of PTFE nanocomposite films reinforced with carbon nanoparticles. Composites B 38, 810–816 (2007).
Stravato, A., Knight, R., Mochalin, V. & Picardi, S. C. HVOF-sprayed nylon-11 + nanodiamond composite coatings: Production and characterization. J. Therm. Spray Technol. 17, 812–817 (2008).
Morimune, S., Kotera, M., Nishino, T., Goto, K. & Hata, K. Poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites with nanodiamond. Macromolecules 44, 4415–4421 (2011).
Li, L., Davidson, J. L. & Lukehart, C. M. Surface functionalization of nanodiamond particles via atom transfer radical polymerization. Carbon 44, 2308–2315 (2006).
Zhang, X. Q. et al. Polymer-functionalized nanodiamond platforms as vehicles for gene delivery. ACS Nano 3, 2609–2616 (2009).
Chen, M. et al. Nanodiamond vectors functionalized with polyethylenimine for siRNA delivery. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3167–3171 (2010).
Li, X. et al. TAT-conjugated nanodiamond for the enhanced delivery of doxorubicin. J. Mater. Chem. 21, 7966–7973 (2011).
Liu, K. K. et al. Covalent linkage of nanodiamond-paclitaxel for drug delivery and cancer therapy. Nanotechnology 21, 315106 (2010).
Zhang, X-Q. et al. Multimodal nanodiamond drug delivery carriers for selective targeting, imaging, and enhanced chemotherapeutic efficacy. Adv. Mater. 23, 4770–4775 (2011).
Huang, H. J., Pierstorff, E., Osawa, E. & Ho, D. Protein-mediated assembly of nanodiamond hydrogels into a biocompatible and biofunctional multilayer nanofilm. ACS Nano 2, 203–212 (2008).
Lam, R. et al. Nanodiamond-embedded microfilm devices for localized chemotherapeutic elution. ACS Nano 2, 2095–2102 (2008).
Kotov, N. A. Inorganic nanoparticles as protein mimics. Science 330, 188–189 (2010).
Osswald, S., Havel, M., Mochalin, V., Yushin, G. & Gogotsi, Y. Increase of nanodiamond crystal size by selective oxidation. Diamond Relat. Mater. 17, 1122–1126 (2008).
Thalhammer, A., Edgington, R. J., Cingolani, L. A., Schoepfer, R. & Jackman, R. B. The use of nanodiamond monolayer coatings to promote the formation of functional neuronal networks. Biomaterials 31, 2097–2104 (2010).
Liu, Y., Khabashesku, V. N. & Halas, N. J. Fluorinated nanodiamond as a wet chemistry precursor for diamond coatings covalently bonded to glass surface. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 3712–3713 (2005).
Lisichkin, G. V., Kulakova, I. I., Gerasimov, Y. A., Karpukhin, A. V. & Yalkovlev, R. Y. Halogenation of detonation-synthesised nanodiamond surfaces. Mendeleev Commun. 19, 309–310 (2009).
Kuznetsov, V. L., Chuvilin, A. L., Butenko, Y. V., Malkov, I. Y. & Titov, V. M. Onion-like carbon from ultra-disperse diamond. Chem. Phys. Lett. 222, 343–348 (1994).
Portet, C., Yushin, G. & Gogotsi, Y. Electrochemical performance of carbon onions, nanodiamonds, carbon black and multiwalled nanotubes in electrical double layer capacitors. Carbon 45, 2511–2518 (2007).
Panich, A. M. et al. Proton magnetic resonance study of diamond nanoparticles decorated by transition metal ions. J. Phys. D 44, 125303 (2011).
Merkel, T. J. & DeSimone, J. M. Dodging drug-resistant cancer with diamonds. Sci. Transl. Med. 3, 73ps8 (2011).
We thank our students and post-docs who helped to collect data and to write and revise the paper, and V. Danilenko for useful discussions. V.N.M. and Y.G. acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (CMMI-0927963, nanodiamond–polymer composites) and from FIRST (Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport), an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (nanodiamond chemistry, graphitization and carbon nanoonions). O.S. was supported in part by the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Centers (N66001-04-1-8933) and the Army Research Laboratory (W911NF-04-2-0023). D.H. was supported by the National Science Foundation (CMMI-0846323, CMMI-0856492, DMI-0327077, DMR-1105060), the National Center for Learning and Teaching, the V Foundation for Cancer Research Scholars Award, the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation Translational Research Award, National Cancer Institute (U54CA151880 and 1R01CA159178-01) and the EU Framework Programme (FP7-KBBE-2009-3).
About this article
Cite this article
Mochalin, V., Shenderova, O., Ho, D. et al. The properties and applications of nanodiamonds. Nature Nanotech 7, 11–23 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2011.209
This article is cited by
Nanoparticle classification, physicochemical properties, characterization, and applications: a comprehensive review for biologists
Journal of Nanobiotechnology (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)
Nature Communications (2022)
Diamond and methane formation from the chemical decomposition of polyethylene at high pressures and temperatures
Scientific Reports (2022)
Safety evaluation of nanodiamond-doxorubicin complexes in a Naïve Beagle canine model using hematologic, histological, and urine analysis
Nano Research (2022)