DNA molecules have been used to build a variety of nanoscale structures and devices over the past 30 years, and potential applications have begun to emerge. But the development of more advanced structures and applications will require a number of issues to be addressed, the most significant of which are the high cost of DNA and the high error rate of self-assembly. Here we examine the technical challenges in the field of structural DNA nanotechnology and outline some of the promising applications that could be developed if these hurdles can be overcome. In particular, we highlight the potential use of DNA nanostructures in molecular and cellular biophysics, as biomimetic systems, in energy transfer and photonics, and in diagnostics and therapeutics for human health.
This is a preview of subscription content
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $8.25 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Seeman, N. C. Nucleic acid junctions and lattices. J. Theor. Biol. 99, 237–247 (1982). This paper laid out the proposal of using branched DNA junctions to make lattices, which set the foundation for structural DNA nanotechnology.
Seeman, N. C. Nanomaterials based on DNA. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 79, 65–87 (2010).
Aldaye, F. A., Palmer, A. L. & Sleiman, H. F. Assembling materials with DNA as the guide. Science 321, 1795–1799 (2008).
Kuzuya, A. & Komiyama, M. DNA origami: fold, stick and beyond. Nanoscale 2, 310–322 (2010).
Shih, W. M. & Lin, C. Knitting complex weaves with DNA origami. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 20, 276–282 (2010).
Nangreave, J., Han, D., Liu, Y. & Yan, H. DNA origami: a history and current perspective. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 14, 608–615 (2010).
Tørring, T., Voigt, N. V., Nangreave, J., Yan, H. & Gothelf, K. V. DNA origami: a quantum leap for self-assembly of complex structures. Chem. Soc. Rev. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C1CS15057J (2011).
Kallenbach, N. R., Ma, R. I. & Seeman, N. C. An immobile nucleic acid junction constructed from oligonucleotides. Nature 305, 829–831 (1983). The first experimental demonstration of an immobile DNA junction.
Seeman, N. C. et al. Synthetic DNA knots and catenanes. New J. Chem. 17, 739–755 (1993).
Chen, J. & Seeman, N. C. Synthesis from DNA of a molecule with the connectivity of a cube. Nature 350, 631–633 (1991). The first example of synthetic 3D DNA nanostructures with the connectivity of a cube.
Zhang, Y. & Seeman, N. C. Construction of a DNA-truncated octahedron. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 1661–1669 (1994).
Goodman, R. P., Berry, R. M. & Turberfield, A. J. The single-step synthesis of a DNA tetrahedron. Chem. Commun. 1372–1373 (2004).
Goodman, R. P. et al. Rapid chiral assembly of rigid DNA building blocks for molecular nanofabrication. Science 310, 1661–1665 (2005).
Erben, C. M., Goodman, R. P. & Turberfield, A. J. A self-assembled DNA bipyramid. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6992–6993 (2007).
Aldaye, F. A. & Sleiman, H. F. Modular access to structurally switchable 3D discrete DNA assemblies. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 13376–13377 (2007).
Yang, H. et al. Metal–nucleic acid cages. Nature Chem. 1, 390–396 (2009).
Fu, T. J. & Seeman, N. C. DNA double-crossover molecules. Biochemistry 32, 3211–3220 (1993). The construction of DNA double-crossover molecules laid the foundation for many DNA nanostructures, including scaffolded DNA origami, to become realistic.
Li, X., Yang, X., Qi, J. & Seeman, N. C. Antiparallel DNA double crossover molecules as components for nanoconstruction. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 6131–6140 (1996).
Winfree, E., Liu, F., Wenzler, L. A. & Seeman, N. C. Design and self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals. Nature 394, 539–544 (1998). The first successful example of building 2D periodic lattices using DNA nanostructures.
Schulman, R. & Winfree, E. Synthesis of crystals with a programmable kinetic barrier to nucleation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 15236–15241 (2007).
LaBean, T. H. et al. Construction, analysis, ligation, and self-assembly of DNA triple crossover complexes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 1848–1860 (2000).
Yan, H. et al. DNA-templated self-assembly of protein arrays and highly conductive nanowires. Science 301, 1882–1884 (2003).
Mathieu, F. et al. Six-helix bundles designed from DNA. Nano Lett. 5, 661–665 (2005).
He, Y. et al. Self-assembly of hexagonal DNA two-dimensional (2D) arrays. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 12202–12203 (2005).
He, Y., Tian, Y., Ribbe, A. E. & Mao, C. Highly connected two-dimensional crystals of DNA six-point-stars. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 15978–15979 (2006).
Sun, X. et al. Surface-mediated DNA self-assembly. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 13248–13249 (2009).
Malo, J., Mitchell, J. C. & Turberfield, A. J. A two-dimensional DNA array: the three-layer logpile. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 13574–13575 (2009).
Liu, Y., Ke, Y. & Yan, H. Self-assembly of symmetric finite-size DNA nanoarrays. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17140–17141 (2005).
Park, S. H. et al. Finite-size, fully addressable DNA tile lattices formed by hierarchical assembly procedures. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 735–739 (2006).
Rothemund, P. W. K., Papadakis, K. & Winfree, E. Algorithmic self-assembly of DNA Sierpinski triangles. PLoS Biol. 2, e424 (2004). The first experimental demonstration of algorithmic DNA self-assembly to create 2D aperiodic patterns.
Liu, D., Park, S. H., Reif, J. H. & LaBean, T. H. DNA nanotubes self-assembled from triple-crossover tiles as templates for conductive nanowires. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 717–722 (2004).
Rothemund, P. W. K. et al. Design and characterization of programmable DNA nanotubes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 16344–16352 (2004).
Mitchell, J. C. et al. Self-assembly of chiral DNA nanotubes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 16342–16343 (2004).
Ke, Y., Liu, Y., Zhang, J. & Yan, H. A study of DNA tube formationmechanisms using 4-, 8-, and 12-helix DNA nanostructures. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 4414–4421 (2006).
Liu, H. et al. Approaching the limit: can one DNA oligonucleotide assemble into large nanostructures? Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 1942–1945 (2006).
Yin, P. et al. Programming DNA tube circumferences. Science 321, 824–826 (2008).
Aldaye, F. A. et al. Modular construction of DNA nanotubes of tunable geometry and single- or double-stranded character. Nature Nanotech. 4, 349–352 (2009).
Zheng, J. et al. From molecular to macroscopic via the rational design of a self-assembled 3D DNA crystal. Nature 461, 74–77 (2009). The first successful experiment to create self-assembling 3D crystals through sticky-ended associations using DNA tiles.
Liu, D. et al. Tensegrity: construction of rigid DNA triangles with flexible four-arm DNA junctions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 2324–2325 (2004).
Yan, H., LaBean, T. H., Feng, L. & Reif, J. H. Directed nucleation assembly of DNA tile complexes for barcode-patterned lattices. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 8103–8108 (2003).
Shih, W. M., Quispe, J. D. & Joyce, G. F. A 1.7-kilobase single-stranded DNA that folds into a nanoscale octahedron. Nature 427, 618–621 (2004).
Rothemund, P. W. K. Folding DNA to create nanoscale shapes and patterns. Nature 440, 279–302 (2006). The first experimental demonstration of spatially addressable 2D patterns using scaffolded DNA origami.
Andersen, E. S. et al. Self-assembly of a nanoscale DNA box with a controllable lid. Nature 459, 73–76 (2009).
Ke, Y. et al. Scaffolded DNA origami of a DNA tetrahedron molecular container. Nano Lett. 9, 2445–2447 (2009).
Kuzuya, A. & Komiyama, M. Design and construction of a box-shaped 3D-DNA origami. Chem. Commun. 4182–4184 (2009).
Endo, M. et al. DNA prism structures constructed by folding of multiple rectangular arms. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 15570–15571 (2009).
Douglas, S. M. et al. Self-assembly of DNA into nanoscale three-dimensional shapes. Nature 459, 414–418 (2009). This study extended DNA origami to solid 3D shapes as stacked layers of DNA double helices.
Ke, Y. et al. Multilayer DNA origami packed on a square lattice. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 15903–15908 (2009).
Dietz, H., Douglas, S. M. & Shih, W. M. Folding DNA into twisted and curved nanoscale shapes. Science 325, 725–730 (2009).
Han, D. et al. DNA origami with complex curvatures in three dimensional space. Science 332, 342–346 (2011).
Park, S. H. et al. Programmable DNA self-assemblies for nanoscale organization of ligands and proteins. Nano Lett. 5, 729–733 (2005).
Lund, K., Liu, Y., Lindsay, S. & Yan, H. Self-assembling a molecular pegboard. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 17606–17607 (2005).
Liu, Y., Lin, C., Li, H. & Yan, H. Aptamer-directed self-assembly of protein arrays on a DNA nanostructure. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44, 4333–4338 (2005).
Li, H., LaBean, T. H. & Kenan, D. J. Single-chain antibodies against DNA aptamers for use as adapter molecules on DNA tile arrays in nanoscale materials organization. Org. Biomol. Chem. 4, 3420–3426 (2006).
Erben, C. M., Goodman, R. P. & Turberfield, A. J. Single-molecule protein encapsulation in a rigid DNA cage. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 7417–7417 (2006).
Chhabra, R. et al. Spatially addressable multiprotein nanoarrays template by aptamer-tagged DNA nanoarchitectures. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 10304–10305 (2007).
Saccà, B. et al. Orthogonal protein decoration of DNA origami. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 9378–9383 (2010).
Williams, B. A. R. et al. Self-assembled peptide nanoarrays: an approach to studying protein-protein interactions. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46, 3051–3054 (2007).
Stephanopoulos, N. et al. Immobilization and one-dimensional arrangement of virus capsids with nanoscale precision using DNA origami. Nano Lett. 10, 2714–2720 (2010).
Mirkin, C. A., Letsinger, R. L., Mucic, R. C. & Storhoff, J. J. A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles into macroscopic materials. Nature 382, 607–609 (1996).
Alivisatos. et al. Organization of 'nanocrystal molecules' using DNA. Nature 382, 609–611 (1996).
Le, J. D. et al. DNA-templated self-assembly of metallic nanocomponent arrays on a surface. Nano Lett. 4, 2343–2347 (2004).
Aldaye, F. A. & Sleiman, H. F. Sequential self-assembly of a DNA hexagon as a template for the organization of gold nanoparticles. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 2204–2209 (2006).
Zhang, J., Liu, Y., Ke, J. & Yan, H. Periodic square-like gold nanoparticle arrays templated by self-assembled 2D DNA nanogrids on a surface. Nano Lett. 6, 248–251 (2006).
Sharma, J., Chhabra, R., Liu, Y., Ke, Y. & Yan, H. DNA-templated self-assembly of two-dimensional and periodical gold nanoparticle arrays. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 730–735 (2006).
Zheng, J. et al. Two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays show the organizational power of robust DNA motifs. Nano Lett. 6, 1502–1504 (2006).
Sharma, J. et al. DNA-tile-directed self-assembly of quantum dots into two-dimensional nanopatterns. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 5157–5159 (2008).
Sharma, J. et al. Control of self-assembly of DNA tubules through integration of gold nanoparticles. Science 323, 112–116 (2009).
Ding, B. et al. Gold nanoparticle self-similar chain structure organized by DNA origami. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 3248–3249 (2010).
Pal, S. et al. DNA-origami-directed self-assembly of discrete silver-nanoparticle architectures. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 1–5 (2010).
Bui, H. et al. Programmable periodicity of quantum dot arrays with DNA origami nanotubes. Nano Lett. 10, 3367–3372 (2010).
Zhao, Z., Lacovetty, E. L., Liu, Y. & Yan, H. Encapsulation of gold nanoparticles in a DNA origami cage. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 2041–2044 (2011).
Nykypanchuk, D., Maye, M. M., Lelie, D. & Gang, O. DNA-guided crystallization of colloidal nanoparticles. Nature 451, 549–552 (2008).
Tikhomirov, T. et al. DNA-based programming of quantum dot valency, self-assembly and luminescence. Nature Nanotech. 6, 485–490 (2011).
Maune, H. T. et al. Self-assembly of carbon nanotubes into two-dimensional geometries using DNA origami templates. Nature Nanotech. 5, 61–66 (2010).
Wilner, O. et al. Enzyme cascades activated on topologically programmed DNA scaffolds. Nature Nanotech. 4, 249–254 (2009).
Niemeyer, C. M., Koehler, J. & Wuerdemann, C. DNA-directed assembly of bienzymic complexes from in vivo biotinylated NAD(P)H:FMN oxidoreductase and luciferase. ChemBioChem 3, 242–245 (2002).
Sonnichsen, C., Reinhard, B. M., Liphardt, J. & Alivisatos, A. P. A molecular ruler based on plasmon coupling of single gold and silver nanoparticles. Nature Biotechnol. 23, 741–745 (2005).
Maye, M. M. et al. Stepwise surface encoding for high-throughput assembly of nanoclusters. Nature Mater. 8, 388–391 (2009).
Cheng, W. et al. Free-standing nanoparticle superlattice sheets controlled by DNA. Nature Mater. 8, 519–525 (2009).
Tian, J., Ma, K. & Saaem, I. Advancing high-throughput gene synthesis technology. Mol. Biosyst. 5, 714–722 (2009).
Kosuri, S. et al. Scalable gene synthesis by selective amplification of DNA pools from high-fidelity microchips. Nature Nanotech. 28, 1295–1299 (2010).
Li, Z. et al. Molecular behavior of DNA origami in higher-order self-assembly. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 13545–13552 (2010).
Liu, W., Zhong, H., Wang, R. & Seeman, N. C. Crystalline two-dimensional DNA-origami arrays. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 264–267 (2011).
Zhao, Z., Yan, H. & Liu, Y. A route to scale up DNA origami using DNA tiles as folding staples. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 1414–1417 (2010).
Endo, M. et al. Two-dimensional DNA origami assemblies using a four-way connector. Chem. Commun. 47, 3213–3215 (2011).
Rajendran, A. et al. Programmed two-dimensional self-assembly of multiple DNA origami jigsaw pieces. ACS Nano 5, 665–671 (2011).
Woo, S. & Rothemund, P. W. K. Programmable molecular recognition based on the geometry of DNA nanostructures. Nature Chem. 3, 620–627 (2011).
Zhao, Z., Liu, Y. & Yan, H. Organizing DNA origami tiles into larger structures using pre-formed scaffold frames. Nano Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nl201603a (2011).
Hung, A. M., Noh, H. & Cha, J. N. Recent advances in DNA-based directed assembly on surfaces. Nanoscale 2, 2530–2537 (2010).
Ding, B. et al. Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami nanotubes. Nano Lett. 10, 5065–5069 (2010).
Kershner, R. J. et al. Placement and orientation of individual DNA shapes on lithographically patterned surfaces. Nature Nanotech. 4, 557–561 (2009).
Hung, A. M. et al. Large-area spatially ordered arrays of gold nanoparticles directed by lithographically confined DNA origami. Nature Nanotech. 5, 121–126 (2010).
Saccà, B. et al. High-throughput, real-time monitoring of the self-assembly of DNA nanostructures by FRET spectroscopy. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 2135–2137 (2008).
Nangreave, J., Yan, H. & Liu, Y. Studies of thermal stability of multivalent DNA hybridization in a nanostructured system. Biophys. J. 97, 563–571 (2009).
Nangreave, J., Yan, H. & Liu, Y. DNA nanostructures as models for evaluating the role of enthalpy and entropy in polyvalent binding. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 4490–4497 (2011).
Chen, Y. X., Triola, G. & Waldmann, H. Bioorthogonal chemistry for site-specific labeling and surface immobilization of proteins. Acc. Chem. Res. 44, 762–773 (2011).
Singh, Y., Murat, P. & Defrancq, E. Recent developments in oligonucleotide conjugation. Chem. Soc. Rev. 39, 2054–2070 (2010).
Diederich, F. & Gomes-Lopez, M. Supramolecular fullerene chemistry. Chem. Soc. Rev. 28, 263–277 (1999).
Richter, J. Metallization of DNA. Physica E 16, 157–173 (2003).
Samano, E. C. et al. Self-assembling DNA templates for programmed artificial biomineralization. Soft Matt. 7, 3240–3245 (2011).
Liu, J. et al. Metallization of branched DNA origami for nanoelectronic circuit fabrication. ACS Nano 5, 2240–2247 (2005).
Schreiber, R. et al. DNA origami-templated growth of arbitrarily shaped metal nanoparticles. Small http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201100465 (2011).
Mao, C., Sun, W., Shen, Z. & Seeman, N. C. A DNA nanomechanical device based on the B–Z transition. Nature 397, 144–146 (1999).
Gu, H., Chao, J., Xiao, S. J. & Seeman, N. C. A proximity-based programmable DNA nanoscale assembly line. Nature 465, 202–205 (2010).
Yurke, B. et al. A DNA-fuelled molecular machine made of DNA. Nature 406, 605–608 (2000).
Zhang, D. Y. & Seelig, G. Dynamic DNA nanotechnology using strand-displacement reactions. Nature Chem. 3, 103–113 (2011).
Chen, X. & Ellington, A. D. Shaping up nucleic acid computation. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 21, 392–400 (2010).
Stojanovic, M. N. Some experiments and directions in molecular computing and robotics. Isr. J. Chem. 51, 99–105 (2011).
Liu, H. & Liu, D. DNA nanomachines and their functional evolution. Chem. Commun. 2625–2639 (2009).
Delius, M. & Leigh, D. A. Walking molecules. Chem. Soc. Rev. 40, 3656–3676 (2011).
Goodman, R. P. et al. Reconfigurable, braced, three-dimensional DNA nanostructure. Nature Nanotech. 3, 93–96 (2008).
Han, D., Pal, S., Liu, Y., Yan, H. Folding and cutting DNA into reconfigurable topological nanostructures. Nature Nanotech. 5, 712–717 (2010).
Aldaye, F. A. & Sleiman, H. F. Modular access to structurally switchable 3D discrete DNA assemblies. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 13376–13377 (2007).
Lo, P. K. et al. Loading and selective release of cargo in DNA nanotubes with longitudinal variation. Nature Chem. 2, 319–328 (2010).
Dirks, R. M. & Pierce, N. A. Triggered amplification by hybridization chain reaction. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 101, 15275–15278 (2004).
Venkataraman, S., Dirks, R. M., Rothemund, P. W. K., Winfree, E. & Pierce, N. A. An autonomous polymerization motor powered by DNA hybridization. Nature Nanotech. 2, 490–494 (2007).
Lin, C. et al. Rolling circle enzymatic replication of a complex multi-crossover DNA nanostructure. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 14475–14481 (2007).
Lin, C. et al. In vivo cloning of artificial DNA nanostructures. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 17626–17631 (2008).
Li, Z. et al. A replicable tetrahedral nanostructure self-assembled from a single DNA strand. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 13093–13098 (2009).
Guo, P. The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology. Nature Nanotech. 5, 833–842 (2010).
Delebecque C. J., Lindner, A. B., Silver, P. A. & Aldaye, F. A. Organization of intracellular reactions with rationally designed RNA assemblies. Science http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1206938 (2011).
Ko, S. H. et al. Synergistic self-assembly of RNA and DNA molecules. Nature Chem. 2, 1050–1055 (2010).
Mei, Q. et al. Stability of DNA origami nanoarrays in cell lysate. Nano Lett. 11, 1477–1482 (2011).
Castro, C. E. et al. A primer to scaffold DNA origami. Nature Methods 8, 221–229 (2011).
Marton, S. et al. In vitro and ex vivo selection procedures for identifying potentially therapeutic DNA and RNA molecules. Molecules 15, 4610–4638 (2010).
Esvelt, K. M., Carlson, J. C. & Liu, D. R. A system for the continuous directed evolution of biomolecules. Nature 472, 499–503 (2011).
Douglas, S. M., Chou, J. J. & Shih, W. M. DNA-nanotube-induced alignment of membrane proteins for NMR structure determination. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 6644–6648 (2007).
Berardi, M. J., Shih, W. M., Harrison, S. C. & Chou, J. J. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 structure determined by NMR molecular fragment searching. Nature 476, 109–113 (2011).
Selmi, D. N. et al. DNA-templated protein arrays for single-molecule imaging. Nano Lett. 11, 657–660 (2011).
Chhabra, C., Sharma, J., Liu, Y. & Yan, H. Addressable molecular tweezers for DNA-templated coupling reactions. Nano Lett. 6, 978–983 (2006).
Gu, H., Yang, W. & Seeman, N. C. DNA scissors device used to measure MutS binding to DNA mis-pairs. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 4352–4357 (2010).
Liedl, T. et al. Self-assembly of three-dimensional prestressed tensegrity structures from DNA. Nature Nanotech. 5, 520–524 (2010).
Sannohe, Y. et al. Visualization of dynamic conformational switching of the G-quadruplex in a DNA nanostructure. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 16311–16313 (2010).
Endo, M., Katsuda, Y., Hidaka, K. & Suguyama, H. Regulation of DNA methylation using different tensions of double strands constructed in a defined DNA nanostructure. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 1592–1597 (2010).
McConnell, I., Li, G. & Brudvig, G. W. Energy conversion in natural and artificial photosynthesis. Chem. Biol. 17, 434–447 (2010).
Wasielewski, M. R. Self-assembly strategies for integrating light harvesting and charge separation in artificial photosynthetic systems. Acc. Chem. Res. 42, 1910–1921 (2009).
Balzani, V., Credi, A. & Venturi, M. Photochemical conversion of solar energy. ChemSusChem 1, 26–58 (2008).
Giese, B. Long distance charge transport in DNA: the hopping mechanism. Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 631–636 (2000).
Schuster, G. B. Long-range charge transfer in DNA: transient structural distortions control the distance dependence. Acc. Chem. Res. 33, 253–260 (2000).
Garcia-Parajó, M. F. et al. Energy transfer in single-molecule photonic wires. ChemPhysChem 6, 819–827 (2005).
Tinnefeld, P., Heilemann, M. & Sauer, M. Design of molecular photonic wires based on multistep electronic excitation transfer. ChemPhysChem 6, 217–222 (2005).
Su, W. et al. Site-specific assembly of DNA-based photonic wires by using programmable polyamides. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 2712–2715 (2011).
Stein, I. H., Steinhauer, C. & Tinnefeld, P. Single-molecule four-color FRET visualizes energy-transfer paths on DNA origami. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 4193–4195 (2011).
Tan, S. J., Campolongo, M. J., Luo, D. & Cheng, W. Building plasmonic structures with DNA. Nature Nanotech. 6, 268–276 (2011).
Yan, R., Gargas, D. & Yang, P. Nanowire photonics. Nature Photon. 3, 569–576 (2009).
Chrastina, A., Massey, K. A. & Schnitzer, J. E. Overcoming in vivo barriers to targeted nanodelivery. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 3, 421–437 (2011).
Lammers, T. Theranostics nanomedicines. Acc. Chem. Res. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar200019c (2011).
Venkataraman, S., Dirks, R. M., Ueda, C. T. & Pierce, N. A. Selective cell death mediated by small conditional RNAs. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 107, 16777–16782 (2010).
Yin, P., Choi, H. M. T., Calvert, C. R. & Pierce, N. A. Programming biomolecular self-assembly pathways. Nature 451, 318–322 (2008). This study demonstrated programmable dynamic control over isothermal DNA self-assembly using hairpin motifs.
Aldaye, F. A., Senapedis, W. T., Silver, P. A. & Way, J. C. A structurally tunable DNA-based extracellular matrix. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 14727–14729 (2010).
We thank K. Gothelf and T. LaBean for discussions. H.Y. acknowledges funding support from the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Army Research office, the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Department of Energy, Sloan Research Fellowship and Arizona State University. W.M.S acknowledges funding support from ONR, NIH, Agilent Technologies and the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. We also thank J. Nangreave for proofreading the manuscript.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Pinheiro, A., Han, D., Shih, W. et al. Challenges and opportunities for structural DNA nanotechnology. Nature Nanotech 6, 763–772 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2011.187
Nature Communications (2022)
Cellular macromolecules-tethered DNA walking indexing to explore nanoenvironments of chromatin modifications
Nature Communications (2021)
Selective discrimination and classification of G-quadruplex structures with a host–guest sensing array
Nature Chemistry (2021)
Nature Reviews Chemistry (2021)
Dimerization and oligomerization of DNA-assembled building blocks for controlled multi-motion in high-order architectures
Nature Communications (2021)