Prior experience of rotation is not required for recognizing objects seen from different angles

Abstract

An object viewed from different angles can be recognized and distinguished from similar distractors after the viewer has had experience watching it rotate. It has been assumed that as an observer watches the rotation, separate representations of individual views become associated with one another. However, we show here that once monkeys learned to discriminate individual views of objects, they were able to recognize objects across rotations up to 60°, even though there had been no opportunity to learn the association between different views. Our results suggest that object recognition across small or medium changes in viewing angle depends on features common to similar views of objects.

NOTE: In the version of this article initially published online, there was an error in the page numbers of the web PDF. The error has been corrected in the PDF version of the article.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Formation of object sets and example sets of stimulus images.
Figure 2: The time sequence of events in the task.
Figure 3: Performance of monkeys immediately after the introduction of new stimulus sets into the object task, without prior experience of individual images.
Figure 4: Performance when new stimulus sets were introduced into the object task after each monkey had discriminated the images from one another at each viewing angle in the preparatory task.
Figure 5: Performance of monkeys in cross-design tests.
Figure 6: Similarity between images for within-object and across-object pairs.
Figure 7: Control experiments with pseudo combinations of object views.
Figure 8: Performance on the first appearance of each pair of object views.

Change history

  • 11 August 2006

    PDF replaced

References

  1. 1

    Rock, I. & DiVita, J. A case of viewer-centered perception. Cognit. Psychol. 19, 280–293 (1987).

  2. 2

    Bülthoff, H.H. & Edelman, S. Psychophysical support for a two-dimensional view interpolation theory of object recognition. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 60–64 (1992).

  3. 3

    Edelman, S. & Bülthoff, H.H. Orientation dependence in the recognition of familiar and novel views of 3D objects. Vision Res. 32, 2385–2400 (1992).

  4. 4

    Humphrey, G.K. & Khan, S.C. Recognizing novel views of three-dimensional objects. Can. J. Psychol. 46, 170–190 (1992).

  5. 5

    Logothetis, N.K., Pauls, J., Bülthoff, H.H. & Poggio, T. View-dependent object recognition by monkeys. Curr. Biol. 4, 401–414 (1994).

  6. 6

    Tarr, M.J. Rotating objects to recognize them: a case study on the role of viewpoint dependency in the recognition of three-dimensional objects. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 2, 55–82 (1995).

  7. 7

    Földiák, P. Learning invariance from transformation sequences. Neural Comput. 3, 194–200 (1991).

  8. 8

    Stryker, M.P. Temporal associations. Nature 354, 108–109 (1991).

  9. 9

    Perrett, D.I., Mistlin, A.J. & Chitty, A.J. Visual neurones responsive to faces. Trends Neurosci. 10, 358–364 (1987).

  10. 10

    Wallis, G. & Bülthoff, H. Learning to recognize objects. Trends Cogn. Sci. 3, 22–31 (1999).

  11. 11

    Riesenhuber, M. & Poggio, T. Models of object recognition. Nat. Neurosci. 3, 1199–1204 (2000).

  12. 12

    Palmeri, T.J. & Gauthier, I. Visual object understanding. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 5, 291–303 (2004).

  13. 13

    Li, L., Miller, E.K. & Desimone, R. The representation of stimulus familiarity in anterior inferior temporal cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 69, 1918–1929 (1993).

  14. 14

    Sakai, K. & Miyashita, Y. Neuronal tuning to learned complex forms in vision. Neuroreport 5, 829–832 (1994).

  15. 15

    Logothetis, N.K., Pauls, J. & Poggio, T. Shape representation in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys. Curr. Biol. 5, 552–563 (1995).

  16. 16

    Kobatake, E., Wang, G. & Tanaka, K. Effects of shape-discrimination training on the selectivity of inferotemporal cells in adult monkeys. J. Neurophysiol. 80, 324–330 (1998).

  17. 17

    Sigala, N. & Logothetis, N.K. Visual categorization shapes feature selectivity in the primate temporal cortex. Nature 415, 318–320 (2002).

  18. 18

    Baker, C.I., Behrmann, M. & Olson, C.R. Impact of learning on representation of parts and wholes in monkey inferotemporal cortex. Nature 5, 1210–1216 (2002).

  19. 19

    Perrett, D.I. et al. Neurones responsive to faces in the temporal cortex: studies of functional organization, sensitivity to identity and relation to perception. Hum. Neurobiol. 3, 197–208 (1984).

  20. 20

    Booth, M.C. & Rolls, E.T. View-invariant representations of familiar objects by neurons in the inferior temporal visual cortex. Cereb. Cortex 8, 510–523 (1998).

  21. 21

    Perrett, D.I. et al. Visual cells in the temporal cortex sensitive to face view and gaze direction. Proc. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 223, 293–317 (1985).

  22. 22

    Perrett, D.I. et al. Viewer-centred and object-centred coding of heads in the macaque temporal cortex. Exp. Brain Res. 86, 159–173 (1991).

  23. 23

    Logothetis, N.K. & Sheinberg, D.L. Visual object recognition. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 19, 577–621 (1996).

  24. 24

    Biederman, I. & Gerhardstein, P.D. Recognizing depth-rotated objects and conditions for three-dimensional viewpoint invariance. J. Exp. Psychol. 19, 1162–1182 (1993).

  25. 25

    Biederman, I. & Bar, M. One-shot viewpoint invariance in matching novel objects. Vision Res. 39, 2885–2899 (1999).

  26. 26

    Edelman, S. Class similarity and viewpoint invariance in the recognition of 3D objects. Biol. Cybern. 72, 207–220 (1995).

  27. 27

    Vogels, R., Biederman, I., Bar, M. & Lorincz, A. Inferior temporal neurons show greater sensitivity to nonaccidental than to metric shape differences. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 13, 444–453 (2001).

  28. 28

    Kayaert, G., Biederman, I. & Vogels, R. Shape tuning in macaque inferior temporal cortex. J. Neurosci. 23, 3016–3027 (2003).

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was partly supported by the collaborative research grant of RIKEN Brain Science Institute and the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas (17022047) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Author information

Correspondence to Keiji Tanaka.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Fig. 1 (PDF 359 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 2 (PDF 578 kb)

Supplementary Fig. 3 (PDF 1636 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Further reading