Abstract

Ependymal cell cilia help move cerebrospinal fluid through the cerebral ventricles, but the regulation of their beat frequency remains unclear. Using in vitro, high-speed video microscopy and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging in mice, we found that the metabolic peptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) positively controlled cilia beat frequency, specifically in the ventral third ventricle, whereas a lack of MCH receptor provoked a ventricular size increase.

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Acknowledgements

We thank J.M. Friedman (Rockefeller University) for Pmch-CFP mice, J. Boutin (Institut de Recherche Servier) for the MCHR1 antagonists, F. Kober and T. Troalen for cine phase-contrast MRI tests, A. Le Troter for assistance in three-dimensional reconstruction of brain MRI, C. Houdayer for laser-capture dissections, V. Thieffin for animal care, I. Larre for help with immunoassays, F. Aguila for artwork, J. Chabry and P. Mollard for discussions, G. Agarwal for help with Matlab, and S. Rasika and P. Haghighi for corrections and remarks on the manuscript. Supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR; ANR-08-MNPS-018-01 to J.-L.N., ANR Gliodiabesity project to V.P. and ANR-09-BLAN-0267 to V.P.), the CNRS Institut National des Sciences Biologiques (INSB), European Union 6th Framework Program STREPS/NEST-APES 28594 (J.L.N.), Projets Exploratoires Premier Soutien (INSB; A.G. and J.-L.N.), the Fondation de la Recherche Médicale (J.-L.N.), and postdoctoral fellowships from the ANR-08-MNPS-018-01 and CNRS (INSB) and awards from the Société Française de Nutrition 2011 and the Institut Danone 2012 (G.C.). A.A. was supported by the Douglas Foundation, McGill University, Canadian Fund for Innovation, Research Chair (Tier 2), and Institute for Health Research and the Natural Science and Engineering Council of Canada.

Author information

Author notes

    • Grégory Conductier
    • , Frédéric Brau
    •  & Angèle Viola

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

    • Vincent Prévot
    • , Olivier Meste
    • , Jean-Louis Nahon
    •  & Alice Guyon

    These authors jointly directed this work.

Affiliations

  1. Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UMR 7275 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Valbonne, France.

    • Grégory Conductier
    • , Frédéric Brau
    • , Thibault Lemaire
    • , Raphaël Chapot
    • , Laurianne Lucas
    • , Carole Rovère
    • , Priscilla Maitre
    • , Salma Hosseiny
    • , Agnès Petit-Paitel
    • , Jean-Louis Nahon
    •  & Alice Guyon
  2. University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, Nice, France.

    • Grégory Conductier
    • , Frédéric Brau
    • , Navean Ramkumar
    • , Thibault Lemaire
    • , Raphaël Chapot
    • , Laurianne Lucas
    • , Carole Rovère
    • , Priscilla Maitre
    • , Salma Hosseiny
    • , Agnès Petit-Paitel
    • , Olivier Meste
    • , Jean-Louis Nahon
    •  & Alice Guyon
  3. Aix-Marseille Université, Centre de Résonance Magnétique Biologique et Médicale, UMR 7339 CNRS, Faculté de Médecine la Timone, Marseille, France.

    • Angèle Viola
  4. INSERM U837/University of Lille 2, Lille, France.

    • Fanny Langlet
    • , Bénédicte Dehouck
    •  & Vincent Prévot
  5. I3S, UMR 7271 CNRS, Sophia Antipolis, France.

    • Navean Ramkumar
    •  & Olivier Meste
  6. Douglass Mental Health University Intitute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    • Antoine Adamantidis
  7. University of Liège, GIGA-Neurosciences, Liège, Belgium.

    • Bernard Lakaye
  8. Laboratoire d'Histologie, EA3922, SFR FED 4234, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Besançon, France.

    • Pierre-Yves Risold
  9. Station de Primatologie, UPS 846 CNRS, Rousset sur Arc, France.

    • Jean-Louis Nahon

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Contributions

G.C., F.B., A.V., F.L., B.D., V.P., L.L., C.R., P.M., S.H., P.-Y.R., A.P.-P. and A.G. performed the experiments. N.R. and O.M. engineered analytical tools. A.A. and B.L. engineered Mchr1−/− mice. G.C., A.V., V.P., T.L., R.C., P.-Y.R., J.-L.N. and A.G. analyzed the data. G.C., J.-L.N. and A.G. wrote the paper.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jean-Louis Nahon or Alice Guyon.

Supplementary information

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    Supplementary Text and Figures

    Supplementary Figures 1–8 and Supplementary Table 1

Videos

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    Supplementary Movie 1

    Representative video recording of the CBF of ciliated ependymal cells in the third ventricle.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3401

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