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Social influences on neuroplasticity: stress and interventions to promote well-being

Abstract

Experiential factors shape the neural circuits underlying social and emotional behavior from the prenatal period to the end of life. These factors include both incidental influences, such as early adversity, and intentional influences that can be produced in humans through specific interventions designed to promote prosocial behavior and well-being. Here we review important extant evidence in animal models and humans. Although the precise mechanisms of plasticity are still not fully understood, moderate to severe stress appears to increase the growth of several sectors of the amygdala, whereas the effects in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex tend to be opposite. Structural and functional changes in the brain have been observed with cognitive therapy and certain forms of meditation and lead to the suggestion that well-being and other prosocial characteristics might be enhanced through training.

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Figure 1: Chronic stress causes neurons to shrink or grow, but not necessarily to die.
Figure 2: Physically abused children show alterations in orbitofrontal (OFC) volume compared with typically developing children, and volume shrinkage in this region is related to measures of family stress.
Figure 3: Anatomically segmented amygdala volumes are larger in later-adopted post-institutionalized children.
Figure 4: Change in gray matter volume in the right basolateral amygdala from pre to post 8 weeks of MBSR was associated with decreases in perceived stress over this same time period.

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Acknowledgements

R.J.D. is supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (R01-MH43454 and P50-MH084051), the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (P01-AT004952), the Fetzer Institute, the John Templeton Foundation, and gifts from Bryant Wangard and Ralph Robinson, Ann Down, Keith and Arlene Bronstein, and the John W. Kluge Foundation. B.S.M. is supported by US National Institutes of Health grants R01 MH41256 and 5P01 MH58911.

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Davidson, R., McEwen, B. Social influences on neuroplasticity: stress and interventions to promote well-being. Nat Neurosci 15, 689–695 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.3093

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