Mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures

Abstract

The isolation of a growing number of two-dimensional (2D) materials has inspired worldwide efforts to integrate distinct 2D materials into van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Given that any passivated, dangling-bond-free surface will interact with another through vdW forces, the vdW heterostructure concept can be extended to include the integration of 2D materials with non-2D materials that adhere primarily through non-covalent interactions. We present a succinct and critical survey of emerging mixed-dimensional (2D + nD, where n is 0, 1 or 3) heterostructure devices. By comparing and contrasting with all-2D vdW heterostructures as well as with competing conventional technologies, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for mixed-dimensional vdW heterostructures.

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Figure 1: Schematic illustrations of prototypical 2D materials and mixed-dimensional van der Waals (vdW) heterojunctions.
Figure 2: Schematic examples of 0D, 1D and 3D semiconductor materials.
Figure 3: Organic–2D heterostructures.
Figure 4: Gate-tunable heterojunction devices.
Figure 5: Tunnelling transport in mixed-dimensional vdW heterostructures.
Figure 6: Photodetectors based on mixed-dimensional vdW heterostructures.
Figure 7: Photovoltaics based on mixed-dimensional vdW heterostructures.
Figure 8: Light-emitting heterostructure devices.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge support from the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) of Northwestern University (NSF DMR-1121262), and the 2-DARE programme (NSF EFRI-143510).

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Correspondence to Mark C. Hersam.

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Jariwala, D., Marks, T. & Hersam, M. Mixed-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures. Nature Mater 16, 170–181 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nmat4703

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