Interleukin 18 function in atherosclerosis is mediated by the interleukin 18 receptor and the Na-Cl co-transporter

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Abstract

Interleukin-18 (IL18) participates in atherogenesis through several putative mechanisms1,2. Interruption of IL18 action reduces atherosclerosis in mice3,4. Here, we show that absence of the IL18 receptor (IL18r) does not affect atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient (Apoe−/−) mice, nor does it affect IL18 cell surface binding to or signaling in endothelial cells. As identified initially by co-immunoprecipitation with IL18, we found that IL18 interacts with the Na-Cl co-transporter (NCC; also known as SLC12A3), a 12-transmembrane-domain ion transporter protein preferentially expressed in the kidney5. NCC is expressed in atherosclerotic lesions, where it colocalizes with IL18r. In Apoe−/− mice, combined deficiency of IL18r and NCC, but not single deficiency of either protein, protects mice from atherosclerosis. Peritoneal macrophages from Apoe−/− mice or from Apoe−/− mice lacking IL18r or NCC show IL18 binding and induction of cell signaling and cytokine and chemokine expression, but macrophages from Apoe−/− mice with combined deficiency of IL18r and NCC have a blunted response. An interaction between NCC and IL18r on macrophages was detected by co-immunoprecipitation. IL18 binds to the cell surface of NCC-transfected COS-7 cells, which do not express IL18r, and induces cell signaling and cytokine expression. This study identifies NCC as an IL18-binding protein that collaborates with IL18r in cell signaling, inflammatory molecule expression, and experimental atherogenesis.

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Figure 1: Identification of alternative IL18-binding proteins.
Figure 2: NCC expression and characterization.
Figure 3: IL18r and NCC function in atherosclerosis.
Figure 4: NCC mediates IL18 signaling and downstream cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages, COS-7 cells and FlpIn-293 cells.

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Acknowledgements

This study is supported by grants from the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HL60942, HL81090, HL88547 to G.-P.S.; HL34636, HL80472 to P.L.) and by an American Heart Association Established Investigator Award (0840118N to G.-P.S.).

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J.W. and C.S. performed most of the experiments. N.G. completed the original IL18 and IL18r mutant mouse analysis. C.L., M.L., M.A.S., A.H., Y.Z., H.C., J.Z., X.C. and Q.K. performed RT-PCR, lesion analysis, cell culture and plasma ELISA. J.L. helped with the NCC cDNA cloning. G.K.S. performed immunostaining. X.W.C., M.K., T.M. and P.L. helped with experimental design, writing and data interpretation. M.J. and G.E.S. provided the NCC mutant mice. S.R., C.-L.Y. and D.H.E. provided the NCC monoclonal antibody and performed the 293 cell experiments. S.J. and R.B. made the human NCC mutant constructs. P.J. measured plasma Mg and K. G.-P.S. designed and performed the experiments and wrote the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Guo-Ping Shi.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Wang, J., Sun, C., Gerdes, N. et al. Interleukin 18 function in atherosclerosis is mediated by the interleukin 18 receptor and the Na-Cl co-transporter. Nat Med 21, 820–826 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.3890

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