Full-time male Canadian faculty members earned almost 13% more than their female counterparts during the 2010–11 academic year, according to a 3 May report by Statistics Canada, a federal agency in Ontario. Women earned, on average, Can$106,970 (US$105,921) in 2010–11 compared with an average of $120,378 for men, the report says. For full professors, the report notes that females earned 5% less than males that year. Women have been slower to reach the highest academic ranks, and have not yet attained the salary levels of their longer-tenured male faculty members, says sociologist Michael Smith at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, who studies labour market and economic issues. Women account for just 23.4% of full professors, but 46.4% of assistant professors.