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Immunotherapy of human cancer: lessons from mice

Translating mouse models into clinical therapies has never been easy. Immunotherapies for cancer also have to contend with an approval process designed for testing drugs. It may be necessary to consider different endpoints and objectives when evaluating the efficacy of these newer approaches.

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Figure 1: Effect of treatment with tumor-derived heat shock protein–peptide complexes on cancers of mice.
Figure 2: Although an array of immunological markers have been examined as potential surrogate markers of antitumor activity in humans and in mice, none have been found suitable.


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Srivastava, P. Immunotherapy of human cancer: lessons from mice. Nat Immunol 1, 363–366 (2000).

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