Hori, S., Nomura, T. & Sakaguchi, S. Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 299, 1057–1061 (2003).
Fontenot, J.D., Gavin, M.A. & Rudensky, A.Y. Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Nat. Immunol. 4, 330–336 (2003).
Chen, W. et al. Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25− naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-β induction of transcription factor Foxp3. J. Exp. Med. 198, 1875–1886 (2003).
Curiel, T.J. et al. Specific recruitment of regulatory T cells in ovarian carcinoma fosters immune privilege and predicts reduced survival. Nat. Med. 10, 942–949 (2004).
Sakaguchi, S. Naturally arising Foxp3-expressing CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells in immunological tolerance to self and non-self. Nat. Immunol. 6, 345–352 (2005).
Zou, W. Regulatory T cells, tumour immunity and immunotherapy. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 6, 295–307 (2006).
Li, M.O., Sanjabi, S. & Flavell, R.A. Transforming growth factor-β controls development, homeostasis, and tolerance of T cells by regulatory T cell-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Immunity 25, 455–471 (2006).
Liu, Y. et al. A critical function for TGF-β signaling in the development of natural CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Nat. Immunol. 9, 632–640 (2008).
Maruyama, T. et al. Control of the differentiation of regulatory T cells and TH17 cells by the DNA-binding inhibitor Id3. Nat. Immunol. 12, 86–95 (2011).
Ouyang, W. et al. Novel Foxo1-dependent transcriptional programs control Treg cell function. Nature 491, 554–559 (2012).
Vander Heiden, M.G., Cantley, L.C. & Thompson, C.B. Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation. Science 324, 1029–1033 (2009).
Gubser, P.M. et al. Rapid effector function of memory CD8+ T cells requires an immediate-early glycolytic switch. Nat. Immunol. 14, 1064–1072 (2013).
Chang, C.H. et al. Posttranscriptional control of T cell effector function by aerobic glycolysis. Cell 153, 1239–1251 (2013).
Chang, C.-H. et al. Metabolic competition in the tumor microenvironment is a driver of cancer progression. Cell 162, 1229–1241 (2015).
Ho, P.-C. et al. Phosphoenolpyruvate is a metabolic checkpoint of anti-tumor T cell responses. Cell 162, 1217–1228 (2015).
Zhao, E. et al. Cancer mediates effector T cell dysfunction by targeting microRNAs and EZH2 via glycolysis restriction. Nat. Immunol. 17, 95–103 (2016).
Clever, D. et al. Oxygen sensing by T cells establishes an immunologically tolerant metastatic niche. Cell 166, 1117–1131 (2016).
Eil, R. et al. Ionic immune suppression within the tumour microenvironment limits T cell effector function. Nature 537, 539–543 (2016).
Singer, M. et al. A distinct gene module for dysfunction uncoupled from activation in tumor-infiltrating T cells. Cell 166, 1500–1511 (2016).
Delgoffe, G.M. et al. The mTOR kinase differentially regulates effector and regulatory T cell lineage commitment. Immunity 30, 832–844 (2009).
Zeng, H. et al. mTORC1 couples immune signals and metabolic programming to establish Treg-cell function. Nature 499, 485–490 (2013).
Shi, L.Z. et al. HIF1α-dependent glycolytic pathway orchestrates a metabolic checkpoint for the differentiation of TH17 and Treg cells. J. Exp. Med. 208, 1367–1376 (2011).
Dang, E.V. et al. Control of TH17/Treg balance by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Cell 146, 772–784 (2011).
Saito, T. et al. Two FOXP3+CD4+ T cell subpopulations distinctly control the prognosis of colorectal cancers. Nat. Med. 22, 679–684 (2016).
Cubillos-Ruiz, J.R. et al. ER stress sensor XBP1 controls anti-tumor immunity by disrupting dendritic cell homeostasis. Cell 161, 1527–1538 (2015).
Arvey, A. et al. Inflammation-induced repression of chromatin bound by the transcription factor Foxp3 in regulatory T cells. Nat. Immunol. 15, 580–587 (2014).
Ko, K. et al. Treatment of advanced tumors with agonistic anti-GITR mAb and its effects on tumor-infiltrating Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells. J. Exp. Med. 202, 885–891 (2005).
Cui, T.X. et al. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells enhance stemness of cancer cells by inducing microRNA101 and suppressing the corepressor CtBP2. Immunity 39, 611–621 (2013).
Wan, S. et al. Tumor-associated macrophages produce interleukin 6 and signal via STAT3 to promote expansion of human hepatocellular carcinoma stem cells. Gastroenterology 147, 1393–1404 (2014).
Shevach, E.M. CD4+CD25+ suppressor T cells: more questions than answers. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 2, 389–400 (2002).
Vignali, D.A.A., Collison, L.W. & Workman, C.J. How regulatory T cells work. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8, 523–532 (2008).
Deaglio, S. et al. Adenosine generation catalyzed by CD39 and CD73 expressed on regulatory T cells mediates immune suppression. J. Exp. Med. 204, 1257–1265 (2007).
Kryczek, I. et al. Phenotype, distribution, generation, and functional and clinical relevance of Th17 cells in the human tumor environments. Blood 114, 1141–1149 (2009).
Huang, S., Apasov, S., Koshiba, M. & Sitkovsky, M. Role of A2a extracellular adenosine receptor-mediated signaling in adenosine-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation and expansion. Blood 90, 1600–1610 (1997).
Erdmann, A.A. et al. Activation of Th1 and Tc1 cell adenosine A2A receptors directly inhibits IL-2 secretion in vitro and IL-2-driven expansion in vivo. Blood 105, 4707–4714 (2005).
Chekeni, F.B. et al. Pannexin 1 channels mediate 'find-me' signal release and membrane permeability during apoptosis. Nature 467, 863–867 (2010).
Sporn, M.B. & Liby, K.T. NRF2 and cancer: the good, the bad and the importance of context. Nat. Rev. Cancer 12, 564–571 (2012).
DeBerardinis, R.J. & Chandel, N.S. Fundamentals of cancer metabolism. Sci. Adv. 2, e1600200 (2016).
Zou, W., Wolchok, J.D. & Chen, L. PD-L1 (B7-H1) and PD-1 pathway blockade for cancer therapy: mechanisms, response biomarkers, and combinations. Sci. Transl. Med. 8, 328rv4 (2016).
Barnett, B., Kryczek, I., Cheng, P., Zou, W. & Curiel, T.J. Regulatory T cells in ovarian cancer: biology and therapeutic potential. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 54, 369–377 (2005).
Dannull, J. et al. Enhancement of vaccine-mediated antitumor immunity in cancer patients after depletion of regulatory T cells. J. Clin. Invest. 115, 3623–3633 (2005).
Attia, P., Maker, A.V., Haworth, L.R., Rogers-Freezer, L. & Rosenberg, S.A. Inability of a fusion protein of IL-2 and diphtheria toxin (denileukin diftitox, DAB389IL-2, Ontak) to eliminate regulatory T lymphocytes in patients with melanoma. J. Immunother. 28, 582–592 (2005).
Kurose, K. et al. Phase Ia study of FoxP3+ CD4 Treg depletion by infusion of a humanized anti-CCR4 antibody, KW-0761, in cancer patients. Clin. Cancer Res. 21, 4327–4336 (2015).
Tai, X. et al. Foxp3 transcription factor is proapoptotic and lethal to developing regulatory T cells unless counterbalanced by cytokine survival signals. Immunity 38, 1116–1128 (2013).
Yang, J. et al. Kupfer-type immunological synapse characteristics do not predict anti-brain tumor cytolytic T-cell function in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 4716–4721 (2010).
Wang, W. et al. Effector T cells abrogate stroma-mediated chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. Cell 165, 1092–1105 (2016).
Peng, D. et al. Epigenetic silencing of TH1-type chemokines shapes tumour immunity and immunotherapy. Nature 527, 249–253 (2015).
Curiel, T.J. et al. Blockade of B7-H1 improves myeloid dendritic cell–mediated antitumor immunity. Nat. Med. 9, 562–567 (2003).
Zou, W. et al. Stromal-derived factor-1 in human tumors recruits and alters the function of plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells. Nat. Med. 7, 1339–1346 (2001).
Subramanian, A. et al. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis: a knowledge-based approach for interpreting genome-wide expression profiles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15545–15550 (2005).