Abstract

Biologists, physicians and immunologists have contributed to the understanding of the cellular participants and biological pathways involved in inflammation. Here, we provide a general guide to the cellular and humoral contributors to inflammation as well as to the pathways that characterize inflammation in specific organs and tissues.

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Acknowledgements

We thank all our colleagues in the field for their contributions to knowledge of inflammation. D.L.K. was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) at the US National Institutes of Health. M.G.N. was supported by an ERC Consolidator Grant (no. 310372), a Spinoza Grant from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research and a Competitiveness Operational Programme Grant from the Romanian Ministry of European Funds (FUSE). K.L.N. was supported by American Heart Association postdoctoral fellowship award 12POST11920023. F.C. was supported by NIH grants DK042191, DK055812, DK091222 and DK097948. F.B. was supported by an ERC Advanced Grant (ERC322566) and a Cancer Research UK Programme Grant (A16354). C.A.D. was supported by NIH grant AI15614. L.A.J. was supported by a Competitiveness Operational Programme grant from the Romanian Ministry of European Funds (HINT, ID P_37_762; MySMIS 103587) and a Dutch Arthritis Foundation grant (NR-12-2-303). K.H.G.M. was supported by grants from Science Foundation Ireland. P.L. was supported by the RRM Charitable Fund and The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01 HL080472). B.S. was supported by the German Research Foundation SPP1656, 749/7-1, 749/10-1, the German Cancer Foundation, the German Israel Foundation and the Horizon 2020 program. D.A.S. was supported by NIH grant R01-HL097163. A.M. was supported by ERC, AIRC and Fondazione Cariplo.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    • Mihai G Netea
    • , Mark S Gresnigt
    • , Leo A B Joosten
    • , Jos W M van der Meer
    • , Frank L van de Veerdonk
    •  & Charles A Dinarello
  2. Human Genomics Laboratory, Craiova University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, Romania.

    • Mihai G Netea
  3. Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

    • Frances Balkwill
  4. Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado, Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

    • Michel Chonchol
    •  & Kristen L Nowak
  5. Digestive Health Research Institute, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

    • Fabio Cominelli
  6. Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University Hospital, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

    • Marc Y Donath
  7. 4th Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

    • Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
  8. Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Douglas Golenbock
    •  & Eicke Latz
  9. Department of Neurodegenerative Disease and Gerontopsychiatry/Neurology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Michael T Heneka
  10. German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany.

    • Michael T Heneka
    •  & Eicke Latz
  11. Division of Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, University of California at San Diego and Rady Children's Hospital of San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

    • Hal M Hoffman
  12. Department of Anesthesiology, Medicine, and Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, USA.

    • Richard Hotchkiss
  13. Department of Medical Genetics, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

    • Leo A B Joosten
  14. Inflammatory Disease Section, Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Inflammatory Disease Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

    • Daniel L Kastner
  15. TU Braunschweig, Zoological Institute and HZI, AG NIND, Braunschweig, Germany.

    • Martin Korte
  16. Institute of Innate Immunity, University Hospital Bonn, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

    • Eicke Latz
  17. Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Peter Libby
  18. Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
  19. Humanitas Clinica Research Center, Humanitas University, Milano, Italy.

    • Alberto Mantovani
  20. School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

    • Kingston H G Mills
    •  & Luke A O'Neill
  21. Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    • Peter Pickkers
  22. Center of Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    • Tom van der Poll
  23. Center for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Paul M Ridker
  24. Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Paul M Ridker
  25. Department of Dermatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    • Joost Schalkwijk
  26. Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado, Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

    • David A Schwartz
  27. Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology, Infectious Diseases, Rheumatology), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

    • Britta Siegmund
  28. Departments of Medicine and of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

    • Clifford J Steer
  29. Department of Internal Medicine I, Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Endocrinology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

    • Herbert Tilg
  30. Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

    • Charles A Dinarello

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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mihai G Netea.

About this article

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.3790

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