Rönnblom, L. & Elkon, K.B. Cytokines as therapeutic targets in SLE. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 6, 339–347 (2010).
Lateef, A. & Petri, M. Unmet medical needs in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res. Ther. 14 (suppl. 4), S4 (2012).
Rönnblom, L. & Alm, G.V. A pivotal role for the natural interferon α-producing cells (plasmacytoid dendritic cells) in the pathogenesis of lupus. J. Exp. Med. 194, F59–F63 (2001).
Rowland, S.L. et al. Early, transient depletion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells ameliorates autoimmunity in a lupus model. J. Exp. Med. 211, 1977–1991 (2014).
Gilliet, M., Cao, W. & Liu, Y.J. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells: sensing nucleic acids in viral infection and autoimmune diseases. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 8, 594–606 (2008).
Siegal, F.P. et al. The nature of the principal type 1 interferon-producing cells in human blood. Science 284, 1835–1837 (1999).
Båve, U. et al. FcγRIIa is expressed on natural IFN-α-producing cells (plasmacytoid dendritic cells) and is required for the IFN-α production induced by apoptotic cells combined with lupus IgG. J. Immunol. 171, 3296–3302 (2003).
Honda, K., Takaoka, A. & Taniguchi, T. Type I interferon [corrected] gene induction by the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription factors. Immunity 25, 349–360 (2006).
Kawai, T. & Akira, S. Signaling to NF-κB by Toll-like receptors. Trends Mol. Med. 13, 460–469 (2007).
Swiecki, M. & Colonna, M. The multifaceted biology of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 15, 471–485 (2015).
Atta, A.M., Santiago, M.B., Guerra, F.G., Pereira, M.M. & Sousa Atta, M.L. Autoimmune response of IgE antibodies to cellular self-antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 152, 401–406 (2010).
Charles, N., Hardwick, D., Daugas, E., Illei, G.G. & Rivera, J. Basophils and the T helper 2 environment can promote the development of lupus nephritis. Nat. Med. 16, 701–707 (2010).
Dema, B. et al. Autoreactive IgE is prevalent in systemic lupus erythematosus and is associated with increased disease activity and nephritis. PLoS ONE 9, e90424 (2014).
Dema, B. et al. Immunoglobulin E plays an immunoregulatory role in lupus. J. Exp. Med. 211, 2159–2168 (2014).
Allen, J.E. & Maizels, R.M. Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 11, 375–388 (2011).
Galli, S.J., Tsai, M. & Piliponsky, A.M. The development of allergic inflammation. Nature 454, 445–454 (2008).
Lit, L.C. et al. Elevated gene expression of Th1/Th2 associated transcription factors is correlated with disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J. Rheumatol. 34, 89–96 (2007).
Masutani, K. et al. Predominance of Th1 immune response in diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. Arthritis Rheum. 44, 2097–2106 (2001).
Elkayam, O., Tamir, R., Pick, A.I. & Wysenbeek, A. Serum IgE concentrations, disease activity, and atopic disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus. Allergy 50, 94–96 (1995).
Morton, S., Palmer, B., Muir, K. & Powell, R.J. IgE and non-IgE mediated allergic disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann. Rheum. Dis. 57, 660–663 (1998).
Wozniacka, A., Sysa-Jedrzejowska, A., Robak, E., Samochocki, Z. & Zak-Prelich, M. Allergic diseases, drug adverse reactions and total immunoglobulin E levels in lupus erythematosus patients. Mediators Inflamm. 12, 95–99 (2003).
Livingston, B., Bonner, A. & Pope, J. Differences in autoantibody profiles and disease activity and damage scores between childhood- and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis. Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 42, 271–280 (2012).
Durrani, S.R. et al. Innate immune responses to rhinovirus are reduced by the high-affinity IgE receptor in allergic asthmatic children. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 130, 489–495 (2012).
Gill, M.A. et al. Counterregulation between the FcɛRI pathway and antiviral responses in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 184, 5999–6006 (2010).
Novak, N. et al. Characterization of FcɛRI-bearing CD123 blood dendritic cell antigen-2 plasmacytoid dendritic cells in atopic dermatitis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 114, 364–370 (2004).
Henault, J. et al. Noncanonical autophagy is required for type I interferon secretion in response to DNA-immune complexes. Immunity 37, 986–997 (2012).
Sasai, M., Linehan, M.M. & Iwasaki, A. Bifurcation of Toll-like receptor 9 signaling by adaptor protein 3. Science 329, 1530–1534 (2010).
Nossent, H., Berden, J. & Swaak, T. Renal immunofluorescence and the prediction of renal outcome in patients with proliferative lupus nephritis. Lupus 9, 504–510 (2000).
Satoskar, A.A. et al. Discrepancies in glomerular and tubulointerstitial/vascular immune complex IgG subclasses in lupus nephritis. Lupus 20, 1396–1403 (2011).
Jego, G. et al. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce plasma cell differentiation through type I interferon and interleukin 6. Immunity 19, 225–234 (2003).
Seth, S. et al. CCR7 essentially contributes to the homing of plasmacytoid dendritic cells to lymph nodes under steady-state as well as inflammatory conditions. J. Immunol. 186, 3364–3372 (2011).
Sharp, G.C. et al. Association of antibodies to ribonucleoprotein and Sm antigens with mixed connective-tissue disease, systematic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatic diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 295, 1149–1154 (1976).
Mouchess, M.L. et al. Transmembrane mutations in Toll-like receptor 9 bypass the requirement for ectodomain proteolysis and induce fatal inflammation. Immunity 35, 721–732 (2011).
Kulczycki, A. Jr. & Metzger, H. The interaction of IgE with rat basophilic leukemia cells. II. Quantitative aspects of the binding reaction. J. Exp. Med. 140, 1676–1695 (1974).
Bruhns, P. et al. Specificity and affinity of human Fcγ receptors and their polymorphic variants for human IgG subclasses. Blood 113, 3716–3725 (2009).
Fitzsimmons, C.M., Falcone, F.H. & Dunne, D.W. Helminth allergens, parasite-specific IgE, and its protective role in human immunity. Front. Immunol. 5, 61 (2014).
Means, T.K. et al. Human lupus autoantibody-DNA complexes activate DCs through cooperation of CD32 and TLR9. J. Clin. Invest. 115, 407–417 (2005).
Pellegrino, M.G. et al. HIV type 1-specific IgE in serum of long-term surviving children inhibits HIV type 1 production in vitro. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 18, 363–372 (2002).
Russi, J.C. et al. Evaluation of immunoglobulin E-specific antibodies and viral antigens in nasopharyngeal secretions of children with respiratory syncytial virus infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 31, 819–823 (1993).
Smith-Norowitz, T.A. et al. Long term persistence of IgE anti-influenza virus antibodies in pediatric and adult serum post vaccination with influenza virus vaccine. Int. J. Med. Sci. 8, 239–244 (2011).
Secord, E.A. et al. IgE against HIV proteins in clinically healthy children with HIV disease. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 98, 979–984 (1996).
Hochberg, M.C. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 40, 1725 (1997).
Tan, E.M. et al. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 25, 1271–1277 (1982).
Hornung, V. et al. Silica crystals and aluminum salts activate the NALP3 inflammasome through phagosomal destabilization. Nat. Immunol. 9, 847–856 (2008).
Cohen, E.S. et al. A novel IgE-neutralizing antibody for the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma. MAbs 6, 756–764 (2014).
Oganesyan, V., Gao, C., Shirinian, L., Wu, H. & Dall'Acqua, W.F. Structural characterization of a human Fc fragment engineered for lack of effector functions. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 64, 700–704 (2008).
Agley, C.C., Velloso, C.P., Lazarus, N.R. & Harridge, S.D. An image analysis method for the precise selection and quantitation of fluorescently labeled cellular constituents: application to the measurement of human muscle cells in culture. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 60, 428–438 (2012).
Karnell, J.L. et al. CD19 and CD32b differentially regulate human B cell responsiveness. J. Immunol. 192, 1480–1490 (2014).
Peng, L., Oganesyan, V., Wu, H., Dall'Acqua, W.F. & Damschroder, M.M. Molecular basis for antagonistic activity of anifrolumab, an anti-interferon-α receptor 1 antibody. MAbs 7, 428–439 (2015).
Finch, D.K. et al. Whole-molecule antibody engineering: generation of a high-affinity anti-IL-6 antibody with extended pharmacokinetics. J. Mol. Biol. 411, 791–807 (2011).