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Molecular control of activation and priming in macrophages

Nature Immunology volume 17, pages 2633 (2016) | Download Citation

Abstract

In tissues, macrophages are exposed to metabolic, homeostatic and immunoregulatory signals of local or systemic origin that influence their basal functions and responses to danger signals. Signal-transduction pathways regulated by extracellular signals are coupled to distinct sets of broadly expressed stimulus-regulated transcription factors whose ability to elicit gene-expression changes is influenced by the accessibility of their binding sites in the macrophage genome. In turn, accessibility of macrophage-specific transcriptional regulatory elements (enhancers and promoters) is specified by transcription factors that determine the macrophage lineage or impose their tissue-specific properties. Here we review recent findings that advance the understanding of mechanisms underlying priming and signal-dependent activation of macrophages and discuss the effect of genetic variation on these processes.

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Affiliations

  1. Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Christopher K Glass
  2. Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy.

    • Gioacchino Natoli

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Correspondence to Christopher K Glass.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ni.3306

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