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Rotating-frame relaxation as a noise spectrum analyser of a superconducting qubit undergoing driven evolution

Nature Communications volume 4, Article number: 2337 (2013) | Download Citation

Abstract

Gate operations in a quantum information processor are generally realized by tailoring specific periods of free and driven evolution of a quantum system. Unwanted environmental noise, which may in principle be distinct during these two periods, acts to decohere the system and increase the gate error rate. Although there has been significant progress characterizing noise processes during free evolution, the corresponding driven-evolution case is more challenging as the noise being probed is also extant during the characterization protocol. Here we demonstrate the noise spectroscopy (0.1–200 MHz) of a superconducting flux qubit during driven evolution by using a robust spin-locking pulse sequence to measure relaxation (T) in the rotating frame. In the case of flux noise, we resolve spectral features due to coherent fluctuators, and further identify a signature of the 1 MHz defect in a time-domain spin–echo experiment. The driven-evolution noise spectroscopy complements free-evolution methods, enabling the means to characterize and distinguish various noise processes relevant for universal quantum control.

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Acknowledgements

We appreciate A. Kerman, P. Krantz, L. Levitov, S. Lloyd and T. Yamamoto for helpful discussions and K. Harrabi for assistance with device fabrication. We thank R. Wu for support in this work. This work was sponsored in part by the US Government, the Laboratory for Physical Sciences, the US Army Research Office (W911NF-12-1-0036), the National Science Foundation (PHY-1005373), the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST), NICT Commissioned Research, MEXT kakenhi ‘Quantum Cybernetics’, Project for Developing Innovation Systems of MEXT. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily endorsed by the US Government.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • Fei Yan
    •  & David G. Cory
  2. Research Laboratory of Electronics, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • Simon Gustavsson
    • , Jonas Bylander
    • , Xiaoyue Jin
    • , Terry P. Orlando
    •  & William D. Oliver
  3. The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako 351-0198, Japan

    • Fumiki Yoshihara
    •  & Yasunobu Nakamura
  4. Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1

    • David G. Cory
  5. Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2J 2W9

    • David G. Cory
  6. Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokoyo 153-8904, Japan

    • Yasunobu Nakamura
  7. MIT Lincoln Laboratory, 244 Wood Street, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420, USA

    • William D. Oliver

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Contributions

F. Yoshihara and Y.N. designed and fabricated the device. F. Yan, S.G. and J.B. performed the experiments and contributed to the software infrastructure. F. Yan analysed the data. F. Yan and W.D.O. wrote the paper with feedback from all authors. W.D.O., D.G.C. and T.P.O. supervised the project. All authors contributed to discussions during the conception, execution and interpretation of the experiments.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fei Yan.

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    Supplementary Information

    Supplementary Figures S1-S2, Supplementary Table S1, Supplementary Note 1 and Supplementary References

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3337

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