Ohno, S. Intercellular junctions and cellular polarity: the PAR–aPKC complex, a conserved core cassette playing fundamental roles in cell polarity. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 13, 641–648 (2001).
Macara, I. G. Parsing the polarity code. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5, 220–231 (2004).
Shi, S. H., Jan, L. Y. & Jan, Y. N. Hippocampal neuronal polarity specified by spatially localized mPar3/mPar6 and PI 3-kinase activity. Cell 112, 63–75 (2003).
Nishimura, T. et al. Role of the PAR-3–KIF3 complex in the establishment of neuronal polarity. Nature Cell Biol. 6, 328–334 (2004).
Craig, A. M. & Banker, G. Neuronal polarity. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 17, 267–310 (1994).
Bradke, F. & Dotti, C. G. Establishment of neuronal polarity: lessons from cultured hippocampal neurons. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 10, 574–581 (2000).
Fukata, Y., Kimura, T. & Kaibuchi, K. Axon specification in hippocampal neurons. Neurosci. Res. 43, 305–315 (2002).
Kaibuchi, K., Kuroda, S. & Amano, M. Regulation of the cytoskeleton and cell adhesion by the Rho family GTPases in mammalian cells. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 68, 459–486 (1999).
Burridge, K. & Wennerberg, K. Rho and Rac take center stage. Cell 116, 167–179 (2004).
Etienne-Manneville, S. & Hall, A. Rho GTPases in cell biology. Nature 420, 629–635 (2002).
Schwamborn, J. C. & Puschel, A. W. The sequential activity of the GTPases Rap1B and Cdc42 determines neuronal polarity. Nature Neurosci. 7, 923–929 (2004).
Menager, C., Arimura, N., Fukata, Y. & Kaibuchi, K. PIP3 is involved in neuronal polarization and axon formation. J. Neurochem. 89, 109–118 (2004).
Etienne-Manneville, S. & Hall, A. Integrin-mediated activation of Cdc42 controls cell polarity in migrating astrocytes through PKCζ. Cell 106, 489–498 (2001).
Yamanaka, T. et al. PAR-6 regulates aPKC activity in a novel way and mediates cell–cell contact-induced formation of the epithelial junctional complex. Genes Cells 6, 721–731 (2001).
Leeuwen, F. N. et al. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1 affects neuronal morphology: opposing roles for the small GTPases Rac and Rho. J. Cell Biol. 139, 797–807 (1997).
Matsuo, N., Terao, M., Nabeshima, Y. & Hoshino, M. Roles of STEF/Tiam1, guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rac1, in regulation of growth cone morphology. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 24, 69–81 (2003).
Kunda, P., Paglini, G., Quiroga, S., Kosik, K. & Caceres, A. Evidence for the involvement of Tiam1 in axon formation. J. Neurosci. 21, 2361–2372 (2001).
Kozma, R., Sarner, S., Ahmed, S. & Lim, L. Rho family GTPases and neuronal growth cone remodeling: relationship between increased complexity induced by Cdc42Hs, Rac1, and acetylcholine and collapse induced by RhoA and lysophosphatidic acid. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17, 1201–1211 (1997).
Matsuo, N., Hoshino, M., Yoshizawa, M. & Nabeshima, Y. Characterization of STEF, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, required for neurite growth. J. Biol.Chem. 277, 2860–2868 (2002).
Lin, D. et al. A mammalian PAR-3–PAR-6 complex implicated in Cdc42/Rac1 and aPKC signaling and cell polarity. Nature Cell Biol. 2, 540–547 (2000).
Michiels, F. et al. Regulated membrane localization of Tiam1, mediated by the NH2-terminal pleckstrin homology domain, is required for Rac-dependent membrane ruffling and C-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. J. Cell Biol. 137, 387–398 (1997).
Mertens, A. E., Roovers, R. C. & Collard, J. G. Regulation of Tiam1–Rac signaling. FEBS Lett. 546, 11–16 (2003).
Fleming, I. N., Gray, A. & Downes, C. P. Regulation of the Rac1-specific exchange factor Tiam1 involves both phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent and -independent components. Biochem. J. 351, 173–182 (2000).
Rolls, M. M. & Doe, C. Q. Baz, Par-6 and aPKC are not required for axon or dendrite specification in Drosophila. Nature Neurosci. 7, 1293–1295 (2004).
Mishima, A. et al. Over-expression of PAR-3 suppresses contact-mediated inhibition of cell migration in MDCK cells. Genes Cells 7, 581–596 (2002).
Habets, G. G. et al. Identification of an invasion-inducing gene, Tiam1, that encodes a protein with homology to GDP–GTP exchangers for Rho-like proteins. Cell 77, 537–549 (1994).
Hordijk, P. L. et al. Inhibition of invasion of epithelial cells by Tiam1–Rac signaling. Science 278, 1464–1466 (1997).
Sander, E. E. et al. Matrix-dependent Tiam1/Rac signaling in epithelial cells promotes either cell–cell adhesion or cell migration and is regulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. J. Cell Biol. 143, 1385–1398 (1998).
Hoshino, M. et al. Identification of the stef gene that encodes a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for Rac1. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 17837–17844 (1999).
Nishimura, T. et al. CRMP-2 regulates polarized Numb-mediated endocytosis for axon growth. Nature Cell Biol. 5, 819–826 (2003).