Synaptic vesicle retrieval: still time for a kiss

After exocytosis, synaptic vesicles are reformed by slow clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, evidence also supports the existence of faster retreival mechanisms in neurons, including 'kiss-and-run', where vesicles fuse only partially with the presynaptic membrane before being retrieved. New insights in synaptic vesicle dynamics have been obtained from vesicle imaging and from studies with mutant animals. Recently, measurements of capacitance changes induced by the fusion of single synaptic vesicles in synapses corroborate the hypothesis that kiss-and-run operates in neurons. Here, we review the evidence supporting fast vesicle retrieval and evaluate its role in neurotransmitter release.

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Figure 1: FM dye properties in the unloading paradigm.
Figure 2: Kiss and run in neurons.

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Acknowledgements

We thank E. Seto, A. Fayyazuddin, J. Hounsgaard and P. Saggau for their comments on the manuscript. O.K is supported by the Novo Nordisk Foundation and the Lundbeck Foundation. H.J.B. is supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

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