Academic researchers have regularly ignored patents on key technologies as a strategy to maneuver around patent thickets and freedom-to-operate issues, but they may be more at risk than they realize.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $21.58 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Merges, R.P. & Duffy, J.F. Patent Law and Policy: Cases and Materials 3rd edn. 2–3 (LexisNexus, Mathew Bender, 2002).
The Patent Act, 35 US Code.
Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 US 303 (1980).
Pray, C. Oehmke, J.F. & Naseem, A. AgBioForum 8, 52–63 (2005).
Shapiro, C. Navigating the patent thicket: cross licenses, patent pools, and standard-setting (paper presented at Innovation Policy and the Economy, Washington, DC; 1–4 April 2000).
Cukier, K. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 249–251 (2006).
Graff, G.D. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 989–995 (2003).
Hansen, S.A., Kisielewski, M.R. & Asher, J.L. Intellectual property experiences in the United States scientific community (a report by the Project on Science and Intellectual Property in the Public Interest; 2007).
Walsh, J., Cho, C. & Cohen, W.M. Patents, material transfers and access to Research inputs in biomedical research (Final Report to the National Academy of Sciences' Committee Intellectual Property Rights in Genomic and Protein-Related Research Inventions; 2005).
Pray, C.E. & Naseem, A. AgBioForum 8, 108–117 (2005).
Mentewab, A. & Stewart, C.N. Jr. Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 1177–1180 (2005).
Stewart, C.N. Jr. Open-source agriculture. ISB News Report, December, 1–4 (2005).
National Research Council, Committee on Intellectual Property Rights in Genomic and Protein Research and Innovation. Reaping the benefits of genomic and proteomic research: intellectual property rights, innovation, and public health. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. (2005).
Andrews, L. et al. Science 314, 1395–1396 (2006).
35 USC § 200.
Boettiger S. & Bennett, A. Nat. Biotechnol. 24, 320–323 (2006).
Madey v. Duke University, 307 F.3d 1351 (2002).
Florida Prepaid v. College Savings Bank, 527 U.S. 627 (1999).
Malakoff, D. Science 289, 2267–2269 (2000).
Gillam, C. University group sues Monsanto over soybean patent. Reuters May 23 (2007).
KSR International v. Teleflex, Inc., 550 US ___ (2007).
Samardzija, M.R. Science 315, 190–191 (2007).
Anonymous. Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 633 (2005).
Thanks to Bill Park and Stacey Patterson for helpful discussions and comments on earlier drafts.
About this article
Cite this article
Yancey, A., Stewart, C. Are university researchers at risk for patent infringement?. Nat Biotechnol 25, 1225–1228 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1107-1225
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (2017)
Trends in Plant Science (2015)
Trends in Biotechnology (2011)
Biotechnology Law Report (2011)
Plant Biotechnology Journal (2010)