Neoantigens, which are expressed on tumor cells, are one of the main targets of an effective antitumor T-cell response. Cancer immunotherapies to target neoantigens are of growing interest and are in early human trials, but methods to identify neoantigens either require invasive or difficult-to-obtain clinical specimens, require the screening of hundreds to thousands of synthetic peptides or tandem minigenes, or are only relevant to specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. We apply deep learning to a large (N = 74 patients) HLA peptide and genomic dataset from various human tumors to create a computational model of antigen presentation for neoantigen prediction. We show that our model, named EDGE, increases the positive predictive value of HLA antigen prediction by up to ninefold. We apply EDGE to enable identification of neoantigens and neoantigen-reactive T cells using routine clinical specimens and small numbers of synthetic peptides for most common HLA alleles. EDGE could enable an improved ability to develop neoantigen-targeted immunotherapies for cancer patients.
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We would like to thank C.J. Couter for her assistance with general laboratory tasks and establishment of the in vitro stimulation assays. T.A.C. acknowledges funding in part through the NIH/NCI Cancer Center Support Grant P30 CA008748, Pershing Square Sohn Cancer Research grant, the PaineWebber Chair, Stand Up 2 Cancer, NIH R01 CA205426, NIH R35 CA232097, and the STARR Cancer Consortium. V.T.D.M., O.M., G.S., P.B., S.N., N.K., R. Rosell, I.A., N.G., J.H., C.L., K. Choquette, A.S., E.F. and M.F. received research funding support for this study from Gritstone Oncology, Inc.
B.B.-S., J.B., C.D.P., M.J.D., T.M., A.C., M.B., F.D., A.Y., L.Y., N.C.O., K. Caldwell, J.A., T.B., M.G.H., R. Rousseau, C.V., K.J., M.S., J.F. and R.Y. are employees and shareholders of Gritstone Oncology, Inc, a company developing neoantigen immunotherapies. T.A.C. and N.A.R. are founders, shareholders, and serve on the scientific advisory board of Gritstone Oncology. B.B.-S., J.B., C.D.P., T.B., M.S., J.F. and R.Y are inventors on patents and patent applications relating to this work. T.A.C. holds equity in An2H. T.A.C. acknowledges grant funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Illumina, Pfizer, An2H and Eisai. T.A.C. has served as an advisor for Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Illumina, Eisai and An2H. T.A.C., N.A.R. and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center have a patent filing (PCT/US2015/062208) for the use of tumor mutation burden and HLA for prediction of immunotherapy efficacy, which is licensed to Personal Genome Diagnostics. S.N. is on speaker bureaus for Eli Lilly; Bristol-Myers Squibb; Takeda; Merck, Sharp & Dohme; Boehringer Ingelheim; AstraZeneca; and AbbVie.
Supplementary Figures 1, 2 and 5–13, Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Notes 1–3 (PDF 2557 kb)
EDGE model code (ZIP 4 kb)
Motifs for HLA-A alleles (PDF 726 kb)
Motifs for HLA-B alleles (PDF 570 kb)
Motifs for HLA-C alleles (PDF 647 kb)
Precision-recall curves for all test samples (PDF 245 kb)
Specimen characteristics and MS + NGS metrics (XLSX 18 kb)
Model predicts HLA peptide stability (CSV 0 kb)
T-cell epitope dataset from studies A, B and D (CSV 317 kb)
T-cell epitope dataset from study C (CSV 118 kb)
Predicted ranks of mutations with pre-existing CD8 response (CSV 1 kb)
Peptides tested for T-cell recognition in NSCLC patients (CSV 19 kb)
Demographics of NSCLC patients (XLSX 15 kb)
Neoantigen and infectious disease epitopes in IVS control (XLSX 18 kb)
Neoantigen peptides tested in healthy donors (XLSX 17 kb)
MSD cytokine multiplex and ELISA assays on ELISpot supernatants from NSCLC neoantigen peptides (XLSX 17 kb)
RNA expression dataset used for model training and testing (CSV 36237 kb)
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Bulik-Sullivan, B., Busby, J., Palmer, C. et al. Deep learning using tumor HLA peptide mass spectrometry datasets improves neoantigen identification. Nat Biotechnol 37, 55–63 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.4313
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