• Subscribe to Nature Biotechnology for full access:



Additional access options:

Already a subscriber?  Log in  now or  Register  for online access.


  1. 1.

    EC Appeal Committee. Agenda 27 March 2017, Brussels sante.ddg2.g.5(2017)1349298 (accessed 27 November 2017).

  2. 2.

    Genetically Modified Food and Feed and Environmental Risk Committee. Summary report 27 January 2017, Brussels sante.ddg2.g.5(2017)637128 (accessed 27 November 2017).

  3. 3.

    EUR-Lex. EU Directive 2015/412 of the European Parliament and of the Council (accessed 27 November 2017).

  4. 4.

    AGRA FACTS No. 8 (2017) (accessed 27 November 2017).

  5. 5.

    FoodNavigator (27 March 2017).

  6. 6.

    Council of the EU. Genetically Modified Organisms—A Way Forward; Information from the Austrian delegation (23 June 2009).

  7. 7.

    European Plant Science Organisation (EPSO). GMO cultivation—national opt-out (EPO, Brussels, 26 February, 2015).

  8. 8.

    Anonymous. GMO (In)digest (30 March 2017).

  9. 9.

    , & German J. Agric. Econ. 64, 244–262 (2015).

  10. 10.

    European Commission. EC restrictions of geographical scope of GMO applications/authorisations (accessed 27 November 2017).

  11. 11.

    J. Environ. Law 28, 245–273 (2016).

Download references

Author information


  1. Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.

    • Dennis Eriksson
  2. Research Unit for Agricultural and Forestry Systems and Plant Health, National Institute for Agricultural and Veterinarian Research, Oeiras, Portugal.

    • Eugénia de Andrade
  3. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

    • Borut Bohanec
  4. Department of Social Sciences and Business, Roskilde School of Governance, Roskilde, Denmark.

    • Sevasti Chatzopolou
  5. IBBR, National Research Council, Naples, Italy.

    • Roberto Defez
  6. Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University (LTH), Lund, Sweden.

    • Nélida Leiva Eriksson
  7. Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Sciences, and Department of European, Public and International Law, Faculty of Law, Ghent University, Belgium.

    • Piet van der Meer
  8. Faculty of Science and Bio-Engineering Sciences, Free University Brussels (VUB), Belgium.

    • Piet van der Meer
  9. Law & Governance Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

    • Bernd van der Meulen
  10. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Espoo, Finland.

    • Anneli Ritala
  11. Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Martonvásár, Hungary.

    • László Sági
  12. Institute for Biosafety in Plant Biotechnology, Julius Kühn-Institut, Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Quedlinburg, Germany.

    • Joachim Schiemann
  13. Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

    • Tomasz Twardowski
  14. Laboratory of Plant Biotechnologies, Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, Prague, Czech Republic.

    • Tomáš Vaněk


  1. Search for Dennis Eriksson in:

  2. Search for Eugénia de Andrade in:

  3. Search for Borut Bohanec in:

  4. Search for Sevasti Chatzopolou in:

  5. Search for Roberto Defez in:

  6. Search for Nélida Leiva Eriksson in:

  7. Search for Piet van der Meer in:

  8. Search for Bernd van der Meulen in:

  9. Search for Anneli Ritala in:

  10. Search for László Sági in:

  11. Search for Joachim Schiemann in:

  12. Search for Tomasz Twardowski in:

  13. Search for Tomáš Vaněk in:

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dennis Eriksson.