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This research was funded by the European Commission as part of the study “Neuroenhancement, responsible research and innovation” Grant Agreement No: 321464. The field work was conducted by Respondi. This study complied with the ethical regulations of the Research Ethics Committee of the London School of Economics. Data created during this research are openly available online at

Author information


  1. Department of Methodology, London School of Economics, London, UK.

    • George Gaskell
    •  & Imre Bard
  2. Toscana Life Sciences Foundation, Siena, Italy.

    • Agnes Allansdottir
  3. Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Porto, Portugal.

    • Rui Vieira da Cunha
    • , Alexandre Quintanilha
    •  & Júlio Borlido Santos
  4. Experimentarium, Science Communication Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark.

    • Peter Eduard
    •  & Sheena Laursen
  5. Center for Interdisciplinary Risk and Innovation Studies, Stuttgart University, Stuttgart, Germany.

    • Juergen Hampel
    •  & Christian Hofmaier
  6. Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    • Elisabeth Hildt
  7. Department of Social and Economic Psychology Johannes Kepler University, Linz, Austria.

    • Nicole Kronberger
    •  & Simone Seyringer
  8. Tilburg Institute for Law, Technology, and Society, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

    • Anna Meijknecht
    •  & Han Somsen
  9. Centre for Ethics University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

    • Salvör Nordal
  10. Centre on Science, Communication and Society Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.

    • Gema Revuelta
    •  & Núria Saladié
  11. The Center for Ethics and Law in Biomedicine Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.

    • Judit Sándor
    •  & Márton Varju
  12. Department of Psychiatry and Oxford Uehiro Centre University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

    • Ilina Singh
  13. Institute for Science, Innovation and Society Radboud University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

    • Winnie Toonders
    •  & Hub Zwart
  14. Institute of Technology Assessment Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

    • Helge Torgersen
  15. Centre for Neurobiology, International School for Advanced Studies, Trieste, Italy.

    • Vincent Torre


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Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to George Gaskell.

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