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Uncertainty over pharmaceutical and biotech product patents in Pakistan

Even after the enactment of a patent law in 2000, pharmaceutical and biotech-related inventions are perceived to lack strong product patent protection in Pakistan.

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Figure 1: Patent applications for NCEs filed during 2004–2010 by the leading pharmaceutical and biotech companies in Pakistan.

References

  1. 1

    PK Patents and Designs Act of 1911.

  2. 2

    PK Patents Ordinance (2000).

  3. 3

    PK Patents Ordinance, Section 15(8).

  4. 4

    PK Patents Ordinance, Section 8(1)–8(3)

  5. 5

    PK Patents Ordinance, Section 9.

  6. 6

    PK Patents Ordinance, Section 7(2)(e).

  7. 7

    Section 1(2)(a) of the UK Act 1977 and Art. 52(2) of EPC.

  8. 8

    See, for example, Genentech's (tPA) patent [(1989) RPC 147 203] and Genentech's (HGH) patent [(1989) RPC 613].

  9. 9

    EPO Guidelines part C, Chapter IV, 2.3.

  10. 10

    Biotechnology Directive, Recital 23.

  11. 11

    OJ EPO 293, 304, para 9 (2002).

  12. 12

    Biotechnology Directive, Recital 22.

  13. 13

    OJ EPO, 307, para 11(ii) (2002).

  14. 14

    Biotechnology Directive, Recital 24. See Chiron v. Murex FSR 153, 177 (1996).

  15. 15

    OJ EPO, 388 (1995).

  16. 16

    Genentech patent (1987) RPC 553, (1989) RPC 147 and 203.

  17. 17

    Monsanto Technology LLC v. Cefetra BV, Case C-428/08, (ECJ) July 06, 2010.

  18. 18

    Dir. 98/44/ EC, Art 8.

  19. 19

    Genentech v. Wellcome Foundation (1989) RPC 147, CA; DSM patent (2001) RPC 675 (under appeal); Biogen v. Medeva [1997] RPC 1, HL.

  20. 20

    Parke-Davis & Co. V.H.K Mulford & Co., 189 F. 95 (SDNY 1911), Aff'd, 196 F. 496 (2d Cir. 1912).

  21. 21

    Merck & Co. v. Olin Mathiesen Chemical Corp. 253 F. 2d 156 (4th Cir. 1958)

  22. 22

    OJ EPO, 388 (1995).

  23. 23

    Chiron Corp. v. Organon Teknika (1994) FSR 202 (Pat. Ct).

  24. 24

    Biogen v. Medeva (1995) RPC 25.

  25. 25

    (1987) RPC 553, (1989) RPC 147, CA.

  26. 26

    (1997) RPC 1, HL.

  27. 27

    Association for Molecular Pathology v. USPTO (Fed. Cir. 2011), 29 July 2011.

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Correspondence to Zarina Iqbal.

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Sadaf, S., Akhtar, M. & Iqbal, Z. Uncertainty over pharmaceutical and biotech product patents in Pakistan. Nat Biotechnol 30, 1198–1200 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.2444

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