This is an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Nature Research are providing this early version of the manuscript as a service to our customers. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting and a proof review before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers apply.

Unconventional superconductivity in magic-angle graphene superlattices



The behaviour of strongly correlated materials, and in particular unconventional superconductors, has puzzled physicists for decades. Such difficulties have stimulated new research paradigms, such as ultracold atom lattices for simulating quantum materials. Here we report on the realization of intrinsic unconventional superconductivity in a two-dimensional superlattice created by stacking two graphene sheets with a small twist angle. For angles near 1.1°, the first ‘magic’ angle, twisted bilayer graphene exhibits ultraflat bands near charge neutrality, which lead to correlated insulating states at half-filling. Upon electrostatic doping away from these correlated insulating states, we observe tunable zero-resistance states with a critical temperature Tc up to 1.7 kelvin. The temperature–density phase diagram shows similarities with that of the cuprates, including superconducting domes. Moreover, quantum oscillations indicate small Fermi surfaces near the correlated insulating phase, in analogy with underdoped cuprates. Its relatively high Tc, given such a small Fermi surface (corresponding to a record-low two-dimensional carrier density of about 1011 per square centimetre), puts twisted bilayer graphene among the strongest coupling superconductors, in a regime close to the crossover between the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer regime and a Bose–Einstein condensate (BCS–BEC). These results establish twisted bilayer graphene as the first purely carbon-based two-dimensional superconductor, providing a highly tunable platform with which to investigate strongly correlated phenomena, which could lead to insights into the physics of high-Tc superconductors and quantum spin liquids.

  • Subscribe to Nature for full access:



Additional access options:

Already a subscriber?  Log in  now or  Register  for online access.

Author information


  1. Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA

    • Yuan Cao
    • , Valla Fatemi
    •  & Pablo Jarillo-Herrero
  2. Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

    • Shiang Fang
    •  & Efthimios Kaxiras
  3. National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan

    • Kenji Watanabe
    •  & Takashi Taniguchi
  4. John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA

    • Efthimios Kaxiras


  1. Search for Yuan Cao in:

  2. Search for Valla Fatemi in:

  3. Search for Shiang Fang in:

  4. Search for Kenji Watanabe in:

  5. Search for Takashi Taniguchi in:

  6. Search for Efthimios Kaxiras in:

  7. Search for Pablo Jarillo-Herrero in:

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Yuan Cao or Pablo Jarillo-Herrero.

Supplementary information


  1. 1.

    Band structure twisted bilayer graphene – animation

    This video shows the evolution of the band structure of twisted bilayer graphene as a function of twist angle, from 3 degrees to 0.8 degrees.


By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.