The gravity harmonics of a fluid, rotating planet can be decomposed into static components arising from solid-body rotation and dynamic components arising from flows. In the absence of internal dynamics, the gravity field is axially and hemispherically symmetric and is dominated by even zonal gravity harmonics J2n that are approximately proportional to qn, where q is the ratio between centrifugal acceleration and gravity at the planet’s equator1. Any asymmetry in the gravity field is attributed to differential rotation and deep atmospheric flows. The odd harmonics, J3, J5, J7, J9 and higher, are a measure of the depth of the winds in the different zones of the atmosphere2,3. Here we report measurements of Jupiter’s gravity harmonics (both even and odd) through precise Doppler tracking of the Juno spacecraft in its polar orbit around Jupiter. We find a north–south asymmetry, which is a signature of atmospheric and interior flows. Analysis of the harmonics, described in two accompanying papers4,5, provides the vertical profile of the winds and precise constraints for the depth of Jupiter’s dynamical atmosphere.

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This research was carried out at the Sapienza University of Rome, University of Bologna and University of Pisa under the sponsorship of the Italian Space Agency; at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a NASA contract; by the Southwest Research Institute under a NASA contract. Support was provided also by the Israeli Space Agency (Y.K. and E.G.) and the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (T.G. and Y.M.). All authors acknowledge support from the Juno Project.

Author information


  1. Sapienza Università di Roma, 00184 Rome, Italy

    • L. Iess
    • , D. Durante
    •  & P. Racioppa
  2. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91109, USA

    • W. M. Folkner
    • , M. Parisi
    • , D. R. Buccino
    • , R. Park
    •  & S. M. Levin
  3. Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel

    • Y. Kaspi
    •  & E. Galanti
  4. Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, 06304 Nice, France

    • T. Guillot
    •  & Y. Miguel
  5. Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA

    • W. B. Hubbard
  6. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA

    • D. J. Stevenson
    •  & H. Cao
  7. Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78238, USA

    • J. D. Anderson
    •  & S. J. Bolton
  8. Università di Bologna, 47100 Forlì, Italy

    • L. Gomez Casajus
    • , P. Tortora
    •  & M. Zannoni
  9. Università di Pisa, 56127 Pisa, Italy

    • A. Milani
    •  & D. Serra
  10. University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland

    • R. Helled
  11. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA

    • J. I. Lunine
  12. University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA

    • B. Militzer
    •  & S. Wahl
  13. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA

    • J. E. P. Connerney


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L.I. and W.M.F. led the experiment and supervised the data analysis. L.I. wrote most of the manuscript. D.D. and M.P. carried out the gravity data analysis. Y.K. and E.G. provided models of the asymmetric and tesseral gravity field. Y.K., E.G., T.G., W.B.H. and D.J.S. carried out consistency checks with interior models and provided theoretical support. D.R.B. planned and supervised the data collection. P.R. designed and coded the orbit determination filter used in this analysis. L.G.C., P.T. and M.Z. provided the media calibrations. J.D.A., A.M., R.P. and D.S. advised on the data analysis. H.C., R.H., J.I.L., Y.M., B.M. and S.W. helped in the definition of the scientific objectives of the measurements. J.E.P.C., S.M.L. and S.J.B. supervised the planning and execution of the gravity experiment.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to L. Iess.

Reviewer Information Nature thanks J. Fortney and N. Nettelmann for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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