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Author information


  1. Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto 14040-190, Brazil

    • Max C. Langer
    •  & Blair W. McPhee
  2. Sección Paleontología de Vertebrados CONICET—Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Avenida Angel Gallardo 470, Buenos Aires C1405DRJ, Argentina

    • Martín D. Ezcurra
  3. Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie and Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Richard-Wagner-Straße 10, Munich 80333, Germany

    • Oliver W. M. Rauhut
  4. Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK

    • Michael J. Benton
  5. ARAID—Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis, Avenida Sagunto s/n, 44002 Teruel, Spain

    • Fabien Knoll
  6. School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK

    • Fabien Knoll
  7. Laboratorio de Anatomía Comparada y Evolución de los Vertebrados, CONICET—Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Avenida Angel Gallardo 470, Buenos Aires C1405DRJ, Argentina

    • Fernando E. Novas
  8. CONICET—Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio, Avenida Fontana 140, Trelew 9100, Argentina

    • Diego Pol
  9. School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Grant Institute, James Hutton Road, Edinburgh EH9 3FE, UK

    • Stephen L. Brusatte


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M.C.L., M.D.E., O.W.M.R., M.J.B., B.W.M., F.E.N. and S.L.B. designed the project. M.C.L., M.D.E., O.W.M.R., M.J.B., F.K., B.W.M., F.E.N. and D.P. rescored the data matrix. M.D.E. and D.P. conducted the phylogenetic analyses. M.J.B., B.W.M. and D.P. conducted the biogeographic analyses. All authors discussed the data, wrote and approved the final manuscript (including the Supplementary Information).

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Max C. Langer.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary information

    This file contains Supplementary Text and Data, Supplementary Figures 1-17 and Supplementary References.


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