Males of many polygynous species compete for access to fertile females without providing them with resources other than sperm and without investing in care for the offspring (male dominance polygyny)1,2,3,4. In such systems, local competition for access to females is intense and typically only a few males obtain matings, leading to strong sexual selection2,4,5. Sampling multiple breeding areas could then provide a mechanism for males to increase their chances to reproduce. However, little is known about such sampling behaviour and about the spatial scale at which males compete6,7,8. Here we show that most males of a migratory, polygynous shorebird, the pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos)9,10, that arrived at a known breeding location in northern Alaska9 subsequently moved through a considerable part of the entire species’ breeding range (up to 13,045 km in a four-week period), sampling as many as 23 additional potential breeding sites. Our data suggest that males do not have a final breeding destination after migration from their wintering quarters, but make nomadic movements that are probably not a consequence of breeding failure. Tenure, the duration of stay at a site, correlated strongly with the number of breeding females at the site, suggesting that decisions to leave are dependent on local mating opportunities. Nomadic movements may allow males to display and sire offspring at multiple sites within a single breeding season. Sexual selection may then favour high-performance males that are able to reduce sleep to compete locally9 and to fly long distances between breeding sites, leading to a population with unrestricted interbreeding and without local adaptation and speciation.
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We thank R. Barth, J. Conklin, W. Forstmeier, A. Jacot, K. Kapetanopoulos, S. Kuhn, L. Langlois, P. Loës, C. Muck, A. Mutzel, M. Oltrogge, E. Penning, H. Schielzeth, X. Schleuning, S. Steiger, K. Teltscher, K. Temnow, A. Türk, D. Werner, A. Wittenzellner and L. Zimmer for help in the field, S. Kuhn and K. Teltscher for genotyping, and W. Goymann, I. Schwabl and M. Trappschuh for hormone analyses. We thank P. Mombaerts for photos and for encouraging us to conduct the tracking study on a large scale, J. Conklin for discussion, W. Forstmeier for comments on the manuscript, and E. Schlicht for discussion, literature search, and comments on the manuscript. We thank R. Lanctot from USFWS in Anchorage and the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium and UMIAQ Barrow Science Support for logistical support. This work was funded by the Max Planck Society.
Extended data figures
Extended data tables
Birds were caught in Barrow, Alaska in 2012 (N = 60, red) and in 2014 (N = 60, blue). The current residency areas are shown as coloured rhombi; they disappear when the bird moves on or when the satellite transmitter stops sending data. Pale green area: suitable breeding habitat of the pectoral sandpiper; dark green area: known breeding range of the species (see Extended Data Fig. 1 for references). Map projection: Polar Lambert azimuthal equal-area with longitude origin 156.65° W (Barrow). Note the running date and time, and the scale bar on the bottom right. In 2014, blizzard conditions (frozen tundra covered with fresh snow) in late May caused most males to leave Barrow and fly to the SW; only one male later returned to the study site for some time.
About this article
Biological Reviews (2019)