The appearance of people associated with the Lapita culture in the South Pacific around 3,000 years ago1 marked the beginning of the last major human dispersal to unpopulated lands. However, the relationship of these pioneers to the long-established Papuan people of the New Guinea region is unclear. Here we present genome-wide ancient DNA data from three individuals from Vanuatu (about 3,100–2,700 years before present) and one from Tonga (about 2,700–2,300 years before present), and analyse them with data from 778 present-day East Asians and Oceanians. Today, indigenous people of the South Pacific harbour a mixture of ancestry from Papuans and a population of East Asian origin that no longer exists in unmixed form, but is a match to the ancient individuals. Most analyses have interpreted the minimum of twenty-five per cent Papuan ancestry in the region today as evidence that the first humans to reach Remote Oceania, including Polynesia, were derived from population mixtures near New Guinea, before their further expansion into Remote Oceania2,3,4,5. However, our finding that the ancient individuals had little to no Papuan ancestry implies that later human population movements spread Papuan ancestry through the South Pacific after the first peopling of the islands.
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European Nucleotide Archive
The aligned sequences are available through the European Nucleotide Archive under accession number PRJEB14728. The newly reported SNP genotyping data for the subset of individuals who provided informed consent consistent with fully public distribution are available at http://genetics.med.harvard.edu/reichlab/Reich_Lab/Datasets.html. To access data for the remaining samples, researchers should send a signed letter to D.R. containing the following text: “(a) I will not distribute the data outside my collaboration; (b) I will not post the data publicly; (c) I will make no attempt to connect the genetic data to personal identifiers for the samples; (d) I will use the data only for studies of population history; (e) I will not use the data for any selection studies; (f) I will not use the data for medical or disease-related analyses; (g) I will not use the data for commercial purposes.” Extended Data Table 2 specifies which samples are consistent with which type of data distribution.
We thank the 356 volunteers who donated samples for genome-wide analysis; M. Stoneking for co-funding genotyping of the Bismarck samples; M. Brilliant, H. Norton, and L. Scheinfeldt, for help in the preparation of the Bismarck samples and establishment of a repository for them at the Marshfield Foundation; A. Wissgott for help in data generation from the ancient Tongan individual; A. Kim, I. Pugach, and M. Stoneking for comments, and I. Mathieson for critiques and advice on estimating sex-specific ancestral contributions. The maps in Figs 1a and 3b–e maps were plotted in R using the world() map of the ‘fields’ and ‘maps’ packages (using public domain data from the CIA World Data Bank II). P.S. was supported by the Wenner-Gren foundation, SciLifeLab, and the Swedish Research Council (VR grant 2014-453). The Teouma research by M.S. and S.B. was supported by the Australian Research Council (Discovery Grants DP0880789 and DP110101415), the National Geographic Society, and the Australia-Pacific Science Foundation. F.V. was supported by CNRS-UMR 7041. M.N. was supported by an Irish Research Council grant (GOIPD/2013/1). D.F. was supported by an Irish Research Council grant (GOIPG/2013/36). Q.F. was funded by the Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences of CAS (QYZDB-SS W-DQC003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (L1524016) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences Discipline Development Strategy Project (2015-DX-C-03). T.K. was supported by ERC starting grant FP7-261213. C.P. and J.K. were supported by the Baden Wuerttemberg Foundation. J.K was supported by the DFG grant KR 4015/1-1 and the Max Planck Society. R.P. was supported by ERC starting grant ADNABIOARC (263441). D.R. was supported by NIH grant GM100233, by NSF HOMINID BCS-1032255, and is a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator.
This file contains Supplementary Notes 1-3, Supplementary Table 1 and additional references.
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