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Deep learning

Abstract

Deep learning allows computational models that are composed of multiple processing layers to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. These methods have dramatically improved the state-of-the-art in speech recognition, visual object recognition, object detection and many other domains such as drug discovery and genomics. Deep learning discovers intricate structure in large data sets by using the backpropagation algorithm to indicate how a machine should change its internal parameters that are used to compute the representation in each layer from the representation in the previous layer. Deep convolutional nets have brought about breakthroughs in processing images, video, speech and audio, whereas recurrent nets have shone light on sequential data such as text and speech.

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Figure 1: Multilayer neural networks and backpropagation.
Figure 2: Inside a convolutional network.
Figure 3: From image to text.
Figure 4: Visualizing the learned word vectors.
Figure 5: A recurrent neural network and the unfolding in time of the computation involved in its forward computation.

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Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canadian Institute For Advanced Research (CIFAR), the National Science Foundation and Office of Naval Research for support. Y.L. and Y.B. are CIFAR fellows.

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LeCun, Y., Bengio, Y. & Hinton, G. Deep learning. Nature 521, 436–444 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14539

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