Zhang, R. & Delworth, T. L. Impact of Atlantic multidecadal oscillations on India/Sahel rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L23708 (2006).
Sutton, R. T. & Dong, B. Atlantic Ocean influence on a shift in European climate in the 1990s. Nature Geosci. 5, 788–792 (2012).
Goldenberg, S. B., Landsea, C. W., Mestas-Nuñez, A. M. & Gray, W. M. The recent increase in Atlantic hurricane activity: causes and implications. Science 293, 474–479 (2001).
Chen, X. & Tung, K.-K. Varying planetary heat sink led to global-warming slowdown and acceleration. Science 345, 897–903 (2014).
Delworth, T. L. & Mann, M. E. Observed and simulated multidecadal variability in the Northern Hemisphere. Clim. Dyn. 16, 661–676 (2000).
Booth, B. B., Dunstone, N. J., Halloran, P. R., Andrews, T. & Bellouin, N. Aerosols implicated as a prime driver of twentieth-century North Atlantic climate variability. Nature 484, 228–232 (2012).
Marshall, J., Johnson, H. & Goodman, J. A study of the interaction of the North Atlantic Oscillation with ocean circulation. J. Clim. 14, 1399–1421 (2001).
Smeed, D. A. et al. Observed decline of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation 2004 to 2012. Ocean Science 10, 39–38 (2014).
Sallenger, A. H., Jr, Doran, K. S. & Howd, P. A. Hotspot of accelerated sea-level rise on the Atlantic coast of North America. Nature Clim. Change 2, 884–888 (2012).
Boon, J. D. Evidence of sea level acceleration at US and Canadian tide stations, Atlantic Coast, North America. J. Coast. Res. 28, 1437–1445 (2012).
Meinen, C. S., Baringer, M. O. & Garcia, R. F. Florida Current transport variability: an analysis of annual and longer-period signals. Deep Sea Res. I 57, 835–846 (2010).
Østerhus, S., Turrell, W. R., Jónsson, S. & Hansen, B. Measured volume, heat, and salt fluxes from the Atlantic to the Arctic Mediterranean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L07603 (2005).
McCarthy, G. D. et al. Measuring the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N. Prog. Oceanogr. 130, 91–111 (2015).
Montgomery, R. Fluctuations in monthly sea level on eastern US coast as related to dynamics of western North Atlantic Ocean. J. Mar. Res. 1, 165–185 (1938).
Iselin, C. O. Preliminary report on long-period variations in the transport of the Gulf Stream system. Pap. Phys. Oceanogr. Meteorol. 3, 1–40 (1940).
Sturges, W. & Hong, B. Wind forcing of the Atlantic thermocline along 32°N at low frequencies. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 25, 1706–1715 (1995).
Wunsch, C. Mass and volume transport variability in an eddy-filled ocean. Nature Geosci. 1, 165–168 (2008).
Kanzow, T. et al. Basinwide integrated volume transports in an eddy-filled ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 39, 3091–3110 (2009).
Bingham, R. J. & Hughes, C. W. Signature of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in sea level along the east coast of North America. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L02603 (2009).
Yin, J., Schlesinger, M. E. & Stouffer, R. J. Model projections of rapid sea-level rise on the northeast coast of the United States. Nature Geosci. 2, 262–266 (2009).
Johns, W. E. et al. Continuous, array-based estimates of Atlantic Ocean heat transport at 26.5°N. J. Clim. 24, 2429–2449 (2011).
Grist, J. P. et al. The roles of surface heat flux and ocean heat transport convergence in determining Atlantic Ocean temperature variability. Ocean Dyn. 60, 771–790 (2010).
Thompson, P. & Mitchum, G. Coherent sea level variability on the North Atlantic western boundary. J. Geophys. Res. 119, 5676–5689 (2014).
Ezer, T. Sea level rise, spatially uneven and temporally unsteady: why the US east coast, the global tide gauge record and the global altimeter data show different trends. Geophys. Res. Lett. 40, 5439–5444 (2013).
Hodson, D. L., Robson, J. I. & Sutton, R. T. An anatomy of the cooling of the North Atlantic Ocean in the 1960s and 1970s. J. Clim. 27, 8229–8243 (2014).
Häkkinen, S. & Rhines, P. B. Decline of subpolar North Atlantic circulation during the 1990s. Science 304, 555–559 (2004).
Bryden, H. L., King, B. A., McCarthy, G. D. & McDonagh, E. L. Impact of a 30% reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning during 2009–2010. Ocean Sci. 10, 683–691 (2014).
Robson, J., Sutton, R., Lohmann, K., Smith, D. & Palmer, M. D. Causes of the rapid warming of the North Atlantic Ocean in the mid-1990s. J. Clim. 25, 4116–4134 (2012).
Gulev, S., Latif, M., Keenlyside, N. S. & Koltermann, K. North Atlantic Ocean control on surface heat flux at multidecadal timescale. Nature 499, 464–467 (2013).
Bretherton, C. S., Widmann, M., Dymnikov, V. P., Wallace, J. M. & Bladé, I. The effective number of spatial degrees of freedom of a time-varying field. J. Clim. 12, 1990–2009 (1999).
Ebisuzaki, W. A method to estimate the statistical significance of a correlation when the data are serially correlated. J. Clim. 10, 2147–2153 (1997).