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Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface

Abstract

Metamaterials are artificial optical media composed of sub-wavelength metallic and dielectric building blocks that feature optical phenomena not present in naturally occurring materials1,2,3,4,5,6,7. Although they can serve as the basis for unique optical devices that mould the flow of light in unconventional ways, three-dimensional metamaterials suffer from extreme propagation losses8,9. Two-dimensional metamaterials (metasurfaces) such as hyperbolic metasurfaces for propagating surface plasmon polaritons10,11 have the potential to alleviate this problem. Because the surface plasmon polaritons are guided at a metal–dielectric interface (rather than passing through metallic components), these hyperbolic metasurfaces have been predicted to suffer much lower propagation loss while still exhibiting optical phenomena akin to those in three-dimensional metamaterials. Moreover, because of their planar nature, these devices enable the construction of integrated metamaterial circuits as well as easy coupling with other optoelectronic elements. Here we report the experimental realization of a visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface using single-crystal silver nanostructures defined by lithographic and etching techniques. The resulting devices display the characteristic properties of metamaterials, such as negative refraction1,2,3,4,5 and diffraction-free propagation6,7, with device performance greatly exceeding those of previous demonstrations. Moreover, hyperbolic metasurfaces exhibit strong, dispersion-dependent spin–orbit coupling, enabling polarization- and wavelength-dependent routeing of surface plasmon polaritons and two-dimensional chiral optical components12,13,14,15. These results open the door to realizing integrated optical meta-circuits, with wide-ranging applications in areas from imaging and sensing to quantum optics and quantum information science.

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Figure 1: Single-crystalline silver film and fabricated devices.
Figure 2: Measurement of SPP refraction at a flat silver/HMS interface.
Figure 3: Observation of diffraction-free SPP propagation.
Figure 4: The dispersion-dependent plasmonic spin-Hall effect (PSHE).

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge support from ONR-MURI (FA9550-12-1-0024), NSF-AMO (PHY-0969816), NSF-CUA (PHY-1125846) and DARPA SPARQC (W31P4Q-12-1-0017). We carried out all film deposition and device fabrication at the Harvard Center for Nanoscale Systems. J.P. acknowledges I. R. Hooper for useful discussions.

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Contributions

A.A.H. and H.P. conceived the study, and A.A.H., R.C.D., M.D.L. and H.P. designed the experiments. A.A.H., R.C.D., A.D. and N.P.d.L. developed the fabrication procedure. A.A.H., R.C.D., A.D. and M.P. performed experiments. A.A.H., R.C.D., D.S.W. and J.P. performed computational analyses and simulations. A.A.H., R.C.D., D.S.W., J.P., N.P.d.L., M.D.L. and H.P. contributed to theoretical descriptions. A.A.H., R.C.D., D.S.W., J.P., M.D.L. and H.P. wrote the manuscript, with extensive input from all authors.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Mikhail D. Lukin or Hongkun Park.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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This file contains Supplementary Methods and Discussion and Supplementary Figures 1-18. (PDF 17183 kb)

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High, A., Devlin, R., Dibos, A. et al. Visible-frequency hyperbolic metasurface. Nature 522, 192–196 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14477

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