We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes1,2,3,4 with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians3, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations’ deep relationships and show that early European farmers had ∼44% ancestry from a ‘basal Eurasian’ population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.
Access optionsAccess options
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
European Nucleotide Archive
The aligned sequences are available through the European Nucleotide Archive under accession number PRJEB6272. The fully public version of the Human Origins dataset can be found at (http://genetics.med.harvard.edu/reichlab/Reich_Lab/Datasets.html). The full version of the dataset (including additional samples) is available to researchers who send a signed letter to D.R. indicating that they will abide by specified usage conditions (Supplementary Information section 9).
We thank the 1,615 volunteers from 147 diverse populations who donated DNA samples and whose genetic data are newly reported in this study. We are grateful to C. Beall, N. Bradman, A. Gebremedhin, D. Labuda, M. Nelis and A. Di Rienzo for sharing DNA samples; to D. Weigel, C. Lanz, V. Schünemann, P. Bauer and O. Riess for support and access to DNA sequencing facilities; to P. Johnson for advice on contamination estimation; to G. Hellenthal for help with the ChromoPainter software; and to P. Skoglund for sharing graphics software. We thank K. Nordtvedt for alerting us to newly discovered Y-chromosome SNPs. We downloaded the POPRES data from dbGaP at (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/gap/cgi-bin/study.cgi?study_id=phs000145.v4.p2) through dbGaP accession number phs000145.v1.p2. We thank all the volunteers who donated DNA. We thank the staff of the Unità Operativa Complessa di Medicina Trasfusionale, Azienda Ospedaliera Umberto I, Siracusa, Italy for assistance in sample collection; and The National Laboratory for the Genetics of Israeli Populations for facilitating access to DNA. We thank colleagues at the Applied Genomics at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, especially H. Hakonarson, C. Kim, K. Thomas, and C. Hou, for genotyping samples on the Human Origins array. J.Kr., A.M. and C.P. are grateful for support from DFG grant number KR 4015/1-1, the Carl-Zeiss Foundation and the Baden Württemberg Foundation. S.P., G.R., Q.F., C.F., K.P., S.C. and J.Ke. acknowledge support from the Presidential Innovation Fund of the Max Planck Society. G.R. was supported by an NSERC fellowship. J.G.S. acknowledges use of the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by NSF grant number OCI-1053575. E.B. and O.B. were supported by RFBR grants 13-06-00670, 13-04-01711, 13-04-90420 and by the Molecular and Cell Biology Program of the Presidium, Russian Academy of Sciences. B.M. was supported by grants OTKA 73430 and 103983. A.Saj. was supported by a Finnish Professorpool (Paulo Foundation) Grant. The Lithuanian sampling was supported by the LITGEN project (VP1-3.1-ŠMM-07-K-01-013), funded by the European Social Fund under the Global Grant Measure. A.S. was supported by Spanish grants SAF2011-26983 and EM 2012/045. O.U. was supported by Ukrainian SFFS grant F53.4/071. S.A.T. was supported by NIH Pioneer Award 8DP1ES022577-04 and NSF HOMINID award BCS-0827436. K.T. was supported by an Indian CSIR Network Project (GENESIS: BSC0121). L.S. was supported by an Indian CSIR Bhatnagar Fellowship. R.V., M.M., J.P. and E.M. were supported by the European Union Regional Development Fund through the Centre of Excellence in Genomics to the Estonian Biocentre and University of Tartu and by an Estonian Basic Research grant SF0270177As08. M.M. was additionally supported by Estonian Science Foundation grant number 8973. J.G.S. and M.S. were supported by NIH grant GM40282. P.H.S. and E.E.E. were supported by NIH grants HG004120 and HG002385. D.R. and N.P. were supported by NSF HOMINID award BCS-1032255 and NIH grant GM100233. D.R. and E.E.E. are Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigators. This project has been funded in part with federal funds from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, under contract HHSN26120080001E. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the US Government. This Research was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Cancer Institute, Center for Cancer Research.
This file contains Supplementary Information Parts 1-19 – see Supplementary Contents for details.This file contains Supplementary Information Parts 1-19 – see Supplementary Contents for details.