Many different photovoltaic technologies are being developed for large-scale solar energy conversion1,2,3,4. The wafer-based first-generation photovoltaic devices1 have been followed by thin-film solid semiconductor absorber layers sandwiched between two charge-selective contacts3 and nanostructured (or mesostructured) solar cells that rely on a distributed heterojunction to generate charge and to transport positive and negative charges in spatially separated phases4,5,6. Although many materials have been used in nanostructured devices, the goal of attaining high-efficiency thin-film solar cells in such a way has yet to be achieved7. Organometal halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising material for high-efficiency nanostructured devices8,9,10,11. Here we show that nanostructuring is not necessary to achieve high efficiencies with this material: a simple planar heterojunction solar cell incorporating vapour-deposited perovskite as the absorbing layer can have solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies of over 15 per cent (as measured under simulated full sunlight). This demonstrates that perovskite absorbers can function at the highest efficiencies in simplified device architectures, without the need for complex nanostructures.
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This work was funded by EPSRC and the European Research Council (ERC) ‘Hyper Project’ number 279881. The Oxford University Press (John Fell) Fund provided support for equipment used in this study, specifically the organic light-emitting diode vapour-deposition equipment. We thank S. Sun, E. Crossland, P. Docampo, G. Eperon, J. Zhang and J. Liu for discussions and experimental and technical assistance.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Extended data figures and tables
a, As-deposited perovskite film; b, post-annealed perovskite film.
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Liu, M., Johnston, M. & Snaith, H. Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition. Nature 501, 395–398 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12509
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