Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic

Abstract

Logic devices based on magnetism show promise for increasing computational efficiency while decreasing consumed power. They offer zero quiescent power and yet combine novel functions such as programmable logic operation and non-volatile built-in memory1,2,3,4,5. However, practical efforts to adapt a magnetic device to logic suffer from a low signal-to-noise ratio and other performance attributes that are not adequate for logic gates. Rather than exploiting magnetoresistive effects that result from spin-dependent transport of carriers, we have approached the development of a magnetic logic device in a different way: we use the phenomenon of large magnetoresistance found in non-magnetic semiconductors in high electric fields6,7. Here we report a device showing a strong diode characteristic that is highly sensitive to both the sign and the magnitude of an external magnetic field, offering a reversible change between two different characteristic states by the application of a magnetic field. This feature results from magnetic control of carrier generation8 and recombination in an InSb p–n bilayer channel9. Simple circuits combining such elementary devices are fabricated and tested, and Boolean logic functions including AND, OR, NAND and NOR are performed. They are programmed dynamically by external electric or magnetic signals, demonstrating magnetic-field-controlled semiconductor reconfigurable logic at room temperature. This magnetic technology permits a new kind of spintronic device, characterized as a current switch rather than a voltage switch, and provides a simple and compact platform for non-volatile reconfigurable logic devices.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Magnetoconductance tunable by external voltage.
Figure 2: Programmable logic operation demonstrated by an AND/OR gate.
Figure 3: Demonstration of various Boolean operations.

References

  1. 1

    Moodera, J. S. & Leclair, P. Spin electronics: a quantum leap. Nature Mater. 2, 707–708 (2003)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Ney, A., Pampuch, C., Koch, R. & Ploog, K. H. Programmable computing with a single magnetoresistive element. Nature 425, 485–487 (2003)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Dery, H., Dalal, P., Cywinski, L. & Sham, L. J. Spin-based logic in semiconductors for reconfigurable large-scale circuits. Nature 447, 573–576 (2007)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Xu, P. et al. An all-metallic logic gate based on current-driven domain wall motion. Nature Nanotechnol. 3, 97–100 (2008)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Behin-Aein, B., Datta, B. D., Salahuddin, S. & Datta, S. Proposal for an all-spin logic device with built-in memory. Nature Nanotechnol. 5, 266–270 (2010)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Delmo, M. et al. Large positive magnetoresistive effect in silicon induced by the space-charge effect. Nature 457, 1112–1115 (2009)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Wan, C. et al. Geometrical enhancement of low-field magnetoresistance in silicon. Nature 477, 304–307 (2011)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Lee, J. et al. An electrical switching device controlled by a magnetic field-dependent impact ionization process. Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 253505 (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Hong, J. et al. Magnetic field dependent impact ionization in InSb. Preprint at http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.1094v1 (2012)

  10. 10

    Schoonus, J. J. H. M., Bloom, F. L., Wagemans, W., Swagten, H. J. M. & Koopmans, B. Extremely large magnetoresistance in boron-doped silicon. Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 127202 (2008)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Delmo, M. P., Kasai, S., Kobayashi, K. & Ono, T. Current-controlled magnetoresistance in silicon in non-Ohmic transport regimes. Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 132106 (2009)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Ciccarelli, C., Park, B. G., Ogawa, S., Ferguson, A. J. & Wunderlich, J. Gate controlled magnetoresistance in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor. Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 082106 (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Sze, S. M. Semiconductor Devices, Physics and Technology 2nd edn, 78, 118 (Wiley and Sons, 2002)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Chovet, A. Study of recombination processes from the magnetoconcentration effect. Phys. Status Solidi A 28, 633–645 (1975)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Cristoloveanu, S. & Lee, J. H. Magnetoconcentration and related galvanomagnetic effects in non-intrinsic semiconductors. J. Phys. C 13, 5983–5997 (1980)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Fulling, S. A., Sinyakov, M. N. & Tischchenko, S. V. Linearity and the Mathematics of Several Variables 343 (World Scientific, 2000)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Massey, D. J. et al. Impact ionization in submicron silicon devices. J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5931–5933 (2004)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Xie, J. J. et al. Excess noise characteristics of thin AlAsSb APDs. IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 59, 1475–1479 (2012)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Hong, J. et al. Local Hall effect in hybrid ferromagnetic/semiconductor devices. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 023510 (2007)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Hosomi, M. et al. A novel nonvolatile memory with spin torque transfer magnetization switching: spin-RAM. In Proc. Electron Devices Meeting, 2005 459–462 (IEDM Technical Digest, IEEE International, 2005)

  21. 21

    Lim, J. Y., Song, J. D., Ahn, J.-P., Rho, H. & Yang, H. S. Effect of thin intermediate-layer of InAs quantum dots on the physical properties of InSb films grown on (001) GaAs. Thin Solid Films 520, 6589–6594 (2012)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the KIST vision 21 programme, NRF grants funded by MEST (2010-0000506, 2011-0012386 and 2012-0005631), the industrial strategic technology development programme funded by MKE (KI002182), the Dream project, MEST (2012K001280), GRL and the Office of Naval Research.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

J.H. and J.D.S. planned the project and supervised the research. S.J. and T.K. fabricated the devices and collected the data. J.D.S, S.H.S. and J.Y.L. grew the materials. J.C., H.-W.L., K.R., S.H.H. and K.-H.S. analysed and discussed the data. J.C., J.H. and M.J. wrote the manuscript, which was edited and approved by all co-authors.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jinki Hong or Jin Dong Song.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Supplementary information

Supplementary Information

This file contains Supplementary Text, Supplementary Figures 1-6 and additional references. (PDF 555 kb)

PowerPoint slides

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Joo, S., Kim, T., Shin, S. et al. Magnetic-field-controlled reconfigurable semiconductor logic. Nature 494, 72–76 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature11817

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing