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Melanopsin signalling in mammalian iris and retina

Abstract

Non-mammalian vertebrates have an intrinsically photosensitive iris and thus a local pupillary light reflex (PLR). In contrast, it is thought that the PLR in mammals generally requires neuronal circuitry connecting the eye and the brain. Here we report that an intrinsic component of the PLR is in fact widespread in nocturnal and crepuscular mammals. In mouse, this intrinsic PLR requires the visual pigment melanopsin; it also requires PLCβ4, a vertebrate homologue of the Drosophila NorpA phospholipase C which mediates rhabdomeric phototransduction. The Plcb4−/− genotype, in addition to removing the intrinsic PLR, also essentially eliminates the intrinsic light response of the M1 subtype of melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (M1-ipRGCs), which are by far the most photosensitive ipRGC subtype and also have the largest response to light. Ablating in mouse the expression of both TRPC6 and TRPC7, members of the TRP channel superfamily, also essentially eliminated the M1-ipRGC light response but the intrinsic PLR was not affected. Thus, melanopsin signalling exists in both iris and retina, involving a PLCβ4-mediated pathway that nonetheless diverges in the two locations.

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Figure 1: Intrinsic PLR of mouse.
Figure 2: Intrinsic photosensitivity of iris sphincter muscle of other mammals.
Figure 3: Dependence of intrinsic PLR on melanopsin.
Figure 4: Phototransduction mechanism underlying intrinsic PLR.
Figure 5: Phototransduction mechanism and components underlying ipRGC intrinsic light response.
Figure 6: Simultaneous direct (ipsilateral) and consensual (contralateral) PLRs to unilateral illumination for different mouse genotypes in situ.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the following individuals for providing knockout mouse lines: M. Caterina (Trpv4−/−), J. Lem (Rho−/− and Gnat1−/−), J. C. Chen (Rho−/−), J. Nathans (cl, also known as cone-DTA), A. Sancar (Cry1−/−Cry2−/− ) and L. Birnbaumer (Trpc1−/−, Trpc3−/− and Trpc6−/−). We thank D. Marshak, R. von der Heydt, X. Wang and V. Casagrande for eyes from baboon, rhesus monkey, marmoset and bush baby, respectively, and W. Li, R. Mi, B. O’Rourke, L. Pipitone, D. Ruben, D. Ryugo, L. Smale and G. Tomaselli for eyes of other animals. Experiments on bush baby were carried out in the Casagrande laboratory with help and hospitality. We also thank W. Gao for suggestions on the force transducer, F. Rieke and A. Sampath for suggestions on the design of the LED light system, P. Ala-Laurila for the method of equivalent 480-nm-photon conversion, H. Cahill for the mouse-head-anchoring method, X. Ren for help on western blots, O. Garalde and A. Chen for help in the monkey experiments, and W. W. S. Yue for help on RT–PCR. We also thank T. Shelley for fabricating all custom equipment, S. Kulason for help in data analysis, and L. Ding for mouse-genotyping support. Members of the Yau laboratory provided comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by US NIH Grant EY14596 and the António Champalimaud Vision Award (Portugal) to K.-W.Y.

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Contributions

T.X., M.T.H.D. and K.-W.Y. designed the experiments. T.X. and M.T.H.D. did the isolated-eyeball experiments. T.X. carried out all muscle recordings and also Trpc knockout ipRGC recordings at 23 °C (recordings at 35°C were by Z.J.), the mouse-optic-nerve transections, some of the in situ PLR measurements (the rest done by J.H.), some of the RT–PCR experiments on melanopsin (the rest done by H.C.W.), the tdTomato-fluorescence experiments, and the generation and maintenance of all double, triple and quadruple genetically engineered mouse lines for this study. The recordings from ipRGCs of Plcb4−/− mice and their wild-type littermates were done by M.T.H.D. (23 °C) and Z.J. (35 °C). T.X., M.T.H.D. and J.H. designed the head-fixed, dual-PLR-recording instrument. T.X. and H.C.W. did the anterior-chamber measurements. H.C.W. did the immunocytochemistry and X-gal labelling. S.L.M. and D.S.W. did the surgery of transecting the optic nerve in anaesthetized monkeys, and tested the PLR with T.X. and M.T.H.D. T.Y. participated in the monkey experiments. A.R. in D.E.C.’s laboratory made the Trpc7−/− mouse line and did the associated characterization (retinal RT–PCR done by T.X.). P.W., S.S., V.F. and M.F. made the Trpc5−/− line and did the associated characterization, and also provided the Trpc4−/− and Trpc4−/− Trpc5−/− lines. M.I.S. provided the Plcb4−/− line. T.X., M.T.H.D. and Z.J. analysed the data with assistance from J.H., and, together with K.-W.Y., wrote the paper.

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Correspondence to T. Xue or K.-W. Yau.

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Xue, T., Do, M., Riccio, A. et al. Melanopsin signalling in mammalian iris and retina. Nature 479, 67–73 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10567

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