Abstract

The dwarf planet Eris is a trans-Neptunian object with an orbital eccentricity of 0.44, an inclination of 44 degrees and a surface composition very similar to that of Pluto1. It resides at present at 95.7 astronomical units (1 au is the Earth-Sun distance) from Earth, near its aphelion and more than three times farther than Pluto. Owing to this great distance, measuring its size or detecting a putative atmosphere is difficult. Here we report the observation of a multi-chord stellar occultation by Eris on 6 November 2010 ut. The event is consistent with a spherical shape for Eris, with radius 1,163 ± 6 kilometres, density 2.52 ± 0.05 grams per cm3 and a high visible geometric albedo, . No nitrogen, argon or methane atmospheres are detected with surface pressure larger than 1 nanobar, about 10,000 times more tenuous than Pluto's present atmosphere2,3,4,5. As Pluto's radius is estimated3,4,5,6,7,8 to be between 1,150 and 1,200 kilometres, Eris appears as a Pluto twin, with a bright surface possibly caused by a collapsed atmosphere, owing to its cold environment. We anticipate that this atmosphere may periodically sublimate as Eris approaches its perihelion, at 37.8 astronomical units from the Sun.

Access optionsAccess options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

References

  1. 1.

    et al. Methane and nitrogen abundances on Pluto and Eris. Astrophys. J. 725, 1296–1305 (2010)

  2. 2.

    & in Pluto and Charon (eds & ) 347–390 (Univ. Arizona Press, 1997)

  3. 3.

    et al. Changes in Pluto's atmosphere: 1988–2006. Astron. J. 134, 1–13 (2007)

  4. 4.

    et al. Pluto's lower atmosphere structure and methane abundance from high-resolution spectroscopy and stellar occultations. Astron. Astrophys. 495, L17–L21 (2009)

  5. 5.

    et al. An analysis of Pluto occultation light curves using an atmospheric radiative–conductive model. Icarus 211, 804–818 (2011)

  6. 6.

    & Further analysis of Pluto-Charon mutual event observations. Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 22, 1129 (1990)

  7. 7.

    & A new determination of radii and limb parameters for Pluto and Charon from mutual event lightcurves. Icarus 108, 186–199 (1994)

  8. 8.

    & in Pluto and Charon (eds & ) 193–219 (Univ. Arizona Press, 1997)

  9. 9.

    , & Discovery of a planetary-sized object in the scattered Kuiper Belt. Astrophys. J. 635, L97–L100 (2005)

  10. 10.

    , , , & Direct measurement of the size of 2003 UB313 from the Hubble Space Telescope. Astrophys. J. 643, L61–L63 (2006)

  11. 11.

    Altenhoff, W. Weiss, A., Menten, K. M. & Thum, C. The trans-neptunian object UB313 is larger than Pluto. Nature 439, 563–564 (2006)

  12. 12.

    & The mass of dwarf planet Eris. Science 316, 1585 (2007)

  13. 13.

    et al. Light curves of dwarf plutonian planets and other large Kuiper Belt Objects: their rotations, phase functions, and absolute magnitudes. Astron. J. 134, 787–798 (2007)

  14. 14.

    et al. A study of photometric variations on the dwarf planet (136199) Eris. Astron. Astrophys. 479, 877–881 (2008)

  15. 15.

    et al. Precise predictions of stellar occultations by Pluto, Charon, Nix and Hydra for 2008–2015. Astron. Astrophys. 515, A32 (2010)

  16. 16.

    et al. Photometric observations constraining the size, shape, and albedo of 2003 EL61, a rapidly rotating, Pluto-sized object in the Kuiper Belt. Astrophys. J. 639, 1238–1251 (2006)

  17. 17.

    & Densities of solar system objects from their rotational light curves. Astron. J. 133, 1393–1408 (2007)

  18. 18.

    , , & in The Solar System Beyond Neptune (eds , , & ) 213–241 (Univ. Arizona Press, 2008)

  19. 19.

    , , & Masses of Nix and Hydra. Astron. J. 135, 777–784 (2008)

  20. 20.

    , , & Enceladus: cosmic graffiti artist caught in the act. Science 315, 815 (2007)

  21. 21.

    et al. Size and albedo of Kuiper belt object 55636 from a stellar occultation. Nature 465, 897–900 (2010)

  22. 22.

    et al. in The Solar System beyond Neptune (eds , , & ) 161–179 (Univ. Arizona Press, 2008)

  23. 23.

    , , & Thermal inertia and bolometric Bond albedo values for Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Iapetus as derived from Cassini/CIRS measurements. Icarus 206, 573–593 (2010)

  24. 24.

    et al. High albedos of low inclination classical Kuiper belt objects. Icarus 201, 284–294 (2009)

  25. 25.

    et al. “TNOs are cool”: a survey of the trans-Neptunian region. I. Results from the Herschel science demonstration phase (SDP). Astron. Astrophys. 518, L146 (2010)

  26. 26.

    et al. “TNOs are cool”: a survey of the trans-Neptunian region. II. The thermal lightcurve of (136108) Haumea. Astron. Astrophys. 518, L147 (2010)

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank W. M. Owen and S. Preston for providing astrometric updates on the occulted star just before the observations, and I. Belskaya and M. E. Brown for discussions when writing the paper. We acknowledge support from the French grant ‘Beyond Neptune’ and from the Institut Universitaire de France. J.L.O., A.J.C.-T., L.C. and M.T.E. acknowledge funding from Spanish AYA grants and FEDER funds. TRAPPIST is a project funded by the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research (FRS-FNRS) with the participation of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF). J.I.B.C. acknowledges CNPq and FAPERJ grants. F.B.-R. acknowledges the support of CDFB/CAPES, Brazil. W.J.B.C., W.R. and F.P.S. thank the Brazilian Agency FAPEMIG.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris-Diderot, 11, Rue Marcelin Berthelot, 92195 Meudon cedex, France

    • B. Sicardy
    • , E. Lellouch
    • , F. Braga-Ribas
    • , J. Lecacheux
    • , F. Roques
    • , P. Santos-Sanz
    •  & T. Widemann
  2. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4, Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 5, France

    • B. Sicardy
  3. Institut Universitaire de France, 103, Boulevard Saint Michel, 75005 Paris, France

    • B. Sicardy
  4. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Apartado 3004, 18080 Granada, Spain

    • J. L. Ortiz
    • , N. Morales
    • , R. Duffard
    • , A. Thirouin
    • , A. J. Castro-Tirado
    • , M. Jelínek
    • , P. Kubánek
    • , A. Sota
    •  & R. Sánchez-Ramírez
  5. Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, CEP 20.080-090 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    • M. Assafin
    • , A. H. Andrei
    • , J. I. B. Camargo
    • , A. Ramos Gomes
    •  & R. Vieira Martins
  6. Institut d'Astrophysique de I'Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, B-4000 Liège, Belgium

    • E. Jehin
    • , M. Gillon
    •  & J. Manfroid
  7. San Pedro de Atacama Celestial Explorations, Casilla 21, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

    • A. Maury
    •  & S. Saravia
  8. Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO) and San Juan National University, Avenida España 1512 sur, J5402DSP, San Juan, Argentina

    • R. Gil Hutton
  9. Observatório Nacional/MCT, Rua General José Cristino 77, CEP 20921-400 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    • F. Braga-Ribas
    • , A. H. Andrei
    • , J. I. B. Camargo
    • , D. N. da Silva Neto
    •  & R. Vieira Martins
  10. IMCCE-Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Lille 1, 77 Avenue Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, France

    • F. Colas
    • , D. Hestroffer
    •  & R. Vieira Martins
  11. Centro Universitário Estadual da Zona Oeste, Avenida Manual Caldeira de Alvarenga 1203, CEP, 23.070-200 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    • D. N. da Silva Neto
  12. INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze, Italy

    • G. P. Tozzi
  13. Caisey Harlingten Observatory, The Grange, Scarrow Beck Road, Erpingham, Norfolk NR11 7QX, UK

    • C. Harlingten
  14. Observatoire de Genève, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland

    • R. Behrend
  15. DLR – German Aerospace Center, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany

    • S. Mottola
  16. Fundació Privada Observatori Esteve Duran, 08553 Seva, Spain

    • E. García Melendo
  17. Institut de Ciències de I'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain

    • E. García Melendo
  18. Observatori Astronòmic, Universitat de València, Calle Catedràtic José Beltrán 2, 46980 Paterna, Spain

    • V. Peris
    •  & J. Fabregat
  19. Universidad de Huelva, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Avenida de las Fuerzas Armadas S/N, 21071 Huelva, Spain

    • J. M. Madiedo
  20. Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain

    • L. Cuesta
    • , M. T. Eibe
    •  & A. Ullán
  21. Observatorio astronómico de La Hita, 45840 La Puebla de Almoradiel (Toledo), Spain

    • F. Organero
  22. Observatorio de la Murta, 30153 Murcia, Spain

    • S. Pastor
    •  & J. A. de los Reyes
  23. Calar Alto Observatory, Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán, Calle Jesús Durbán Remón, 2, 04004 Almería, Spain

    • S. Pedraz
  24. Sociedad Malagueña de Astronomía, Centro Cultural José María Gutiérrez Romero, Calle República Argentina 9, 29016 Málaga, Spain

    • A. Castro
  25. Astroimagen, Abad y Lasierra 58Bis, 07800 Ibiza, Spain

    • I. de la Cueva
  26. Observatorio Nazaret, 35539 Nazaret, Lanzarote, Spain

    • G. Muler
  27. Liverpool JMU, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD, UK

    • I. A. Steele
  28. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain

    • M. Cebrián
    • , P. Montañés-Rodríguez
    •  & A. Oscoz
  29. Observatório Astronomico Christus, Colégio Christus, Rua João Carvalho 630, Aldeota, CEP 60140140, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil

    • D. Weaver
  30. Observatório CEAMIG-REA, CEP31545-120, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

    • C. Jacques
  31. Departamento de Física – Instituto de Ciências Exatas – Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

    • W. J. B. Corradi
    • , F. P. Santos
    •  & W. Reis
  32. Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE-MCT), Divisão de Astrofísica, Avenida dos Astronautas, 1758, São José dos Campos, 12227-010, SP, Brazil

    • A. Milone
  33. Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, O.A. – DEGEO, Avenida Carlos Cavalcanti 4748, Ponta Grossa 84030-900, PR, Brazil

    • M. Emilio
  34. Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, km 103, 22860 Ensenada, BC, Mexico

    • L. Gutiérrez
    •  & R. Vázquez
  35. Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México DF, Mexico

    • H. Hernández-Toledo

Authors

  1. Search for B. Sicardy in:

  2. Search for J. L. Ortiz in:

  3. Search for M. Assafin in:

  4. Search for E. Jehin in:

  5. Search for A. Maury in:

  6. Search for E. Lellouch in:

  7. Search for R. Gil Hutton in:

  8. Search for F. Braga-Ribas in:

  9. Search for F. Colas in:

  10. Search for D. Hestroffer in:

  11. Search for J. Lecacheux in:

  12. Search for F. Roques in:

  13. Search for P. Santos-Sanz in:

  14. Search for T. Widemann in:

  15. Search for N. Morales in:

  16. Search for R. Duffard in:

  17. Search for A. Thirouin in:

  18. Search for A. J. Castro-Tirado in:

  19. Search for M. Jelínek in:

  20. Search for P. Kubánek in:

  21. Search for A. Sota in:

  22. Search for R. Sánchez-Ramírez in:

  23. Search for A. H. Andrei in:

  24. Search for J. I. B. Camargo in:

  25. Search for D. N. da Silva Neto in:

  26. Search for A. Ramos Gomes in:

  27. Search for R. Vieira Martins in:

  28. Search for M. Gillon in:

  29. Search for J. Manfroid in:

  30. Search for G. P. Tozzi in:

  31. Search for C. Harlingten in:

  32. Search for S. Saravia in:

  33. Search for R. Behrend in:

  34. Search for S. Mottola in:

  35. Search for E. García Melendo in:

  36. Search for V. Peris in:

  37. Search for J. Fabregat in:

  38. Search for J. M. Madiedo in:

  39. Search for L. Cuesta in:

  40. Search for M. T. Eibe in:

  41. Search for A. Ullán in:

  42. Search for F. Organero in:

  43. Search for S. Pastor in:

  44. Search for J. A. de los Reyes in:

  45. Search for S. Pedraz in:

  46. Search for A. Castro in:

  47. Search for I. de la Cueva in:

  48. Search for G. Muler in:

  49. Search for I. A. Steele in:

  50. Search for M. Cebrián in:

  51. Search for P. Montañés-Rodríguez in:

  52. Search for A. Oscoz in:

  53. Search for D. Weaver in:

  54. Search for C. Jacques in:

  55. Search for W. J. B. Corradi in:

  56. Search for F. P. Santos in:

  57. Search for W. Reis in:

  58. Search for A. Milone in:

  59. Search for M. Emilio in:

  60. Search for L. Gutiérrez in:

  61. Search for R. Vázquez in:

  62. Search for H. Hernández-Toledo in:

Contributions

B.S. helped plan the campaign, centralized the stellar occultation predictions, participated in the observations, analysed data, wrote and ran the diffraction, limb-fitting and ray-tracing codes, and wrote part of the paper. J.L.O. helped plan the campaign, analysed data for the prediction, participated in the observations, obtained and analysed data, and wrote part of the paper. E.L. analysed the implications of the results for the Eris thermal model, albedo constraints and putative atmospheric structure, and wrote part of the paper. M.A., F.B.-R., A.H.A., J.I.B.C., R.V.M., D.N.d.S.N. and R.B. discovered the star candidate and analysed data for the predictions. E.J. and A.M. obtained and analysed the positive occultation detection at La Silla/TRAPPIST and San Pedro/Harlingten telescopes, respectively. F.B.-R., F.C., M.G. and J.M. analysed data, D.H. calculated Dysnomia’s position at the moment of occultation and wrote part of the paper. All other authors participated in the planning of the campaign and/or the observations, and the authors listed in Supplementary Table 2 were responsible for the observations. All authors were given the opportunity to review the results and comment on the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to B. Sicardy.

Supplementary information

PDF files

  1. 1.

    Supplementary Information

    This file contains Supplementary Text and Data 1-7, Supplementary Figures 1- 5 with legends, Supplementary Tables 1-5 and additional references. This file was replaced on 20 December to reinstate the type missing from the top of page 5.

About this article

Publication history

Received

Accepted

Published

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10550

Further reading

  • 1.

    The size, shape, density and ring of the dwarf planet Haumea from a stellar occultation

    • J. L. Ortiz
    • , P. Santos-Sanz
    • , B. Sicardy
    • , G. Benedetti-Rossi
    • , D. Bérard
    • , N. Morales
    • , R. Duffard
    • , F. Braga-Ribas
    • , U. Hopp
    • , C. Ries
    • , V. Nascimbeni
    • , F. Marzari
    • , V. Granata
    • , A. Pál
    • , C. Kiss
    • , T. Pribulla
    • , R. Komžík
    • , K. Hornoch
    • , P. Pravec
    • , P. Bacci
    • , M. Maestripieri
    • , L. Nerli
    • , L. Mazzei
    • , M. Bachini
    • , F. Martinelli
    • , G. Succi
    • , F. Ciabattari
    • , H. Mikuz
    • , A. Carbognani
    • , B. Gaehrken
    • , S. Mottola
    • , S. Hellmich
    • , F. L. Rommel
    • , E. Fernández-Valenzuela
    • , A. Campo Bagatin
    • , S. Cikota
    • , A. Cikota
    • , J. Lecacheux
    • , R. Vieira-Martins
    • , J. I. B. Camargo
    • , M. Assafin
    • , F. Colas
    • , R. Behrend
    • , J. Desmars
    • , E. Meza
    • , A. Alvarez-Candal
    • , W. Beisker
    • , A. R. Gomes-Junior
    • , B. E. Morgado
    • , F. Roques
    • , F. Vachier
    • , J. Berthier
    • , T. G. Mueller
    • , J. M. Madiedo
    • , O. Unsalan
    • , E. Sonbas
    • , N. Karaman
    • , O. Erece
    • , D. T. Koseoglu
    • , T. Ozisik
    • , S. Kalkan
    • , Y. Guney
    • , M. S. Niaei
    • , O. Satir
    • , C. Yesilyaprak
    • , C. Puskullu
    • , A. Kabas
    • , O. Demircan
    • , J. Alikakos
    • , V. Charmandaris
    • , G. Leto
    • , J. Ohlert
    • , J. M. Christille
    • , R. Szakáts
    • , A. Takácsné Farkas
    • , E. Varga-Verebélyi
    • , G. Marton
    • , A. Marciniak
    • , P. Bartczak
    • , T. Santana-Ros
    • , M. Butkiewicz-Bąk
    • , G. Dudziński
    • , V. Alí-Lagoa
    • , K. Gazeas
    • , L. Tzouganatos
    • , N. Paschalis
    • , V. Tsamis
    • , A. Sánchez-Lavega
    • , S. Pérez-Hoyos
    • , R. Hueso
    • , J. C. Guirado
    • , V. Peris
    •  & R. Iglesias-Marzoa

    Nature (2017)

  • 2.

    A terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit around Proxima Centauri

    • Guillem Anglada-Escudé
    • , Pedro J. Amado
    • , John Barnes
    • , Zaira M. Berdiñas
    • , R. Paul Butler
    • , Gavin A. L. Coleman
    • , Ignacio de la Cueva
    • , Stefan Dreizler
    • , Michael Endl
    • , Benjamin Giesers
    • , Sandra V. Jeffers
    • , James S. Jenkins
    • , Hugh R. A. Jones
    • , Marcin Kiraga
    • , Martin Kürster
    • , Marίa J. López-González
    • , Christopher J. Marvin
    • , Nicolás Morales
    • , Julien Morin
    • , Richard P. Nelson
    • , José L. Ortiz
    • , Aviv Ofir
    • , Sijme-Jan Paardekooper
    • , Ansgar Reiners
    • , Eloy Rodríguez
    • , Cristina Rodrίguez-López
    • , Luis F. Sarmiento
    • , John P. Strachan
    • , Yiannis Tsapras
    • , Mikko Tuomi
    •  & Mathias Zechmeister

    Nature (2016)

  • 3.

    A ring system detected around the Centaur (10199) Chariklo

    • F. Braga-Ribas
    • , B. Sicardy
    • , J. L. Ortiz
    • , C. Snodgrass
    • , F. Roques
    • , R. Vieira-Martins
    • , J. I. B. Camargo
    • , M. Assafin
    • , R. Duffard
    • , E. Jehin
    • , J. Pollock
    • , R. Leiva
    • , M. Emilio
    • , D. I. Machado
    • , C. Colazo
    • , E. Lellouch
    • , J. Skottfelt
    • , M. Gillon
    • , N. Ligier
    • , L. Maquet
    • , G. Benedetti-Rossi
    • , A. Ramos Gomes
    • , P. Kervella
    • , H. Monteiro
    • , R. Sfair
    • , M. El Moutamid
    • , G. Tancredi
    • , J. Spagnotto
    • , A. Maury
    • , N. Morales
    • , R. Gil-Hutton
    • , S. Roland
    • , A. Ceretta
    • , S.-h. Gu
    • , X.-b. Wang
    • , K. Harpsøe
    • , M. Rabus
    • , J. Manfroid
    • , C. Opitom
    • , L. Vanzi
    • , L. Mehret
    • , L. Lorenzini
    • , E. M. Schneiter
    • , R. Melia
    • , J. Lecacheux
    • , F. Colas
    • , F. Vachier
    • , T. Widemann
    • , L. Almenares
    • , R. G. Sandness
    • , F. Char
    • , V. Perez
    • , P. Lemos
    • , N. Martinez
    • , U. G. Jørgensen
    • , M. Dominik
    • , F. Roig
    • , D. E. Reichart
    • , A. P. LaCluyze
    • , J. B. Haislip
    • , K. M. Ivarsen
    • , J. P. Moore
    • , N. R. Frank
    •  & D. G. Lambas

    Nature (2014)

  • 4.

    Instrumental methods for professional and amateur collaborations in planetary astronomy

    • O. Mousis
    • , R. Hueso
    • , J.-P. Beaulieu
    • , S. Bouley
    • , B. Carry
    • , F. Colas
    • , A. Klotz
    • , C. Pellier
    • , J.-M. Petit
    • , P. Rousselot
    • , M. Ali-Dib
    • , W. Beisker
    • , M. Birlan
    • , C. Buil
    • , A. Delsanti
    • , E. Frappa
    • , H. B. Hammel
    • , A. C. Levasseur-Regourd
    • , G. S. Orton
    • , A. Sánchez-Lavega
    • , A. Santerne
    • , P. Tanga
    • , J. Vaubaillon
    • , B. Zanda
    • , D. Baratoux
    • , T. Böhm
    • , V. Boudon
    • , A. Bouquet
    • , L. Buzzi
    • , J. -L. Dauvergne
    • , A. Decock
    • , M. Delcroix
    • , P. Drossart
    • , N. Esseiva
    • , G. Fischer
    • , L. N. Fletcher
    • , S. Foglia
    • , J. M. Gómez-Forrellad
    • , J. Guarro-Fló
    • , D. Herald
    • , E. Jehin
    • , F. Kugel
    • , J. -P. Lebreton
    • , J. Lecacheux
    • , A. Leroy
    • , L. Maquet
    • , G. Masi
    • , A. Maury
    • , F. Meyer
    • , S. Pérez-Hoyos
    • , A. S. Rajpurohit
    • , C. Rinner
    • , J. H. Rogers
    • , F. Roques
    • , R.W. Schmude
    • , B. Sicardy
    • , B. Tregon
    • , M. Vanhuysse
    • , A. Wesley
    •  & T. Widemann

    Experimental Astronomy (2014)

  • 5.

    Albedo and atmospheric constraints of dwarf planet Makemake from a stellar occultation

    • J. L. Ortiz
    • , B. Sicardy
    • , F. Braga-Ribas
    • , A. Alvarez-Candal
    • , E. Lellouch
    • , R. Duffard
    • , N. Pinilla-Alonso
    • , V. D. Ivanov
    • , S. P. Littlefair
    • , J. I. B. Camargo
    • , M. Assafin
    • , E. Unda-Sanzana
    • , E. Jehin
    • , N. Morales
    • , G. Tancredi
    • , R. Gil-Hutton
    • , I. de la Cueva
    • , J. P. Colque
    • , D. N. Da Silva Neto
    • , J. Manfroid
    • , A. Thirouin
    • , P. J. Gutiérrez
    • , J. Lecacheux
    • , M. Gillon
    • , A. Maury
    • , F. Colas
    • , J. Licandro
    • , T. Mueller
    • , C. Jacques
    • , D. Weaver
    • , A. Milone
    • , R. Salvo
    • , S. Bruzzone
    • , F. Organero
    • , R. Behrend
    • , S. Roland
    • , R. Vieira-Martins
    • , T. Widemann
    • , F. Roques
    • , P. Santos-Sanz
    • , D. Hestroffer
    • , V. S. Dhillon
    • , T. R. Marsh
    • , C. Harlingten
    • , A. Campo Bagatin
    • , M. L. Alonso
    • , M. Ortiz
    • , C. Colazo
    • , H. J. F. Lima
    • , A. S. Oliveira
    • , L. O. Kerber
    • , R. Smiljanic
    • , E. Pimentel
    • , B. Giacchini
    • , P. Cacella
    •  & M. Emilio

    Nature (2012)

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.