Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis


The Mediterranean Sea became disconnected from the world’s oceans and mostly desiccated by evaporation about 5.6 million years ago during the Messinian salinity crisis1,2,3. The Atlantic waters found a way through the present Gibraltar Strait and rapidly refilled the Mediterranean 5.33 million years ago in an event known as the Zanclean flood4. The nature, abruptness and evolution of this flood remain poorly constrained4,5,6. Borehole and seismic data show incisions over 250 m deep on both sides of the Gibraltar Strait that have previously been attributed to fluvial erosion during the desiccation4,7. Here we show the continuity of this 200-km-long channel across the strait and explain its morphology as the result of erosion by the flooding waters, adopting an incision model validated in mountain rivers. This model in turn allows us to estimate the duration of the flood. Although the available data are limited, our findings suggest that the feedback between water flow and incision in the early stages of flooding imply discharges of about 108 m3 s-1 (three orders of magnitude larger than the present Amazon River) and incision rates above 0.4 m per day. Although the flood started at low water discharges that may have lasted for up to several thousand years, our results suggest that 90 per cent of the water was transferred in a short period ranging from a few months to two years. This extremely abrupt flood may have involved peak rates of sea level rise in the Mediterranean of more than ten metres per day.

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Figure 1: Geological map and bathymetry of the Gibraltar Arc region.
Figure 2: Evidence for an erosion channel across the Gibraltar Strait.
Figure 3: Evolution of three floods producing a final incision of 240 m, calculated for different exponents of the erosion law a.


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We thank P. Meijer for providing the reconstructed Messinian hypsometry of the Mediterranean. Thoughtful and constructive reviews by P. Carling and P. Gibbard, and critical comments from I. Cacho, P. Meijer, A. Camerlenghi, R. Carbonell and D. Brown helped in improving earlier versions of the manuscript. This is a Group of Dynamics of the Lithosphere contribution funded by the Spanish Government through the projects ‘topoAtlas’ (CGL2006-05493), ‘TopoMed’ and ‘Conturiber’.

Author Contributions D.G.-C. planned the study, performed the modelling and wrote the paper; F.E. and C.G. managed and interpreted the seismic lines; I.J.-M. helped with interpretation and writing; M.F. helped in study design; J.V. and R.D.V. took care of the tectonic aspects. All authors discussed the results.

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Correspondence to D. Garcia-Castellanos.

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Garcia-Castellanos, D., Estrada, F., Jiménez-Munt, I. et al. Catastrophic flood of the Mediterranean after the Messinian salinity crisis. Nature 462, 778–781 (2009).

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