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Neisseria meningitidis recruits factor H using protein mimicry of host carbohydrates


The complement system is an essential component of the innate and acquired immune system1, and consists of a series of proteolytic cascades that are initiated by the presence of microorganisms. In health, activation of complement is precisely controlled through membrane-bound and soluble plasma-regulatory proteins including complement factor H (fH; ref. 2), a 155 kDa protein composed of 20 domains (termed complement control protein repeats). Many pathogens have evolved the ability to avoid immune-killing by recruiting host complement regulators3 and several pathogens have adapted to avoid complement-mediated killing by sequestering fH to their surface4. Here we present the structure of a complement regulator in complex with its pathogen surface-protein ligand. This reveals how the important human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis subverts immune responses by mimicking the host, using protein instead of charged-carbohydrate chemistry to recruit the host complement regulator, fH. The structure also indicates the molecular basis of the host-specificity of the interaction between fH and the meningococcus, and informs attempts to develop novel therapeutics and vaccines.

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Figure 1: The fHbp binding site requires both CCP6 of fH and requires the complete extracellular portion of fHbp.
Figure 2: Structure of fHbp and its complex with fH67.
Figure 3: Interference with fHbp binding of fH.

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Protein Data Bank

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Coordinates and X-ray data have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession numbers 2w80 and 2w81.


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Thanks are due to G. Bricogne and the Global Phasing Consortium for access to a β version of autoSHARP and autoBUSTER, to the beamline staff of the European Synchrotron Radiation Source (particularly G. Leonard) and DIAMOND (UK), and to many members of the Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Oxford, and the Lea group for help with X-ray data collection. B.E.P. was funded by a Wellcome Trust studentship; P.R. and S.J. by Medical Research Council grants to S.M.L.; J.E.D. by a Wellcome Trust grant to SM.L.; and J.E.L. by an Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Grant to S.M.L. Work in C.M.T.’s laboratory is funded by the Wellcome Trust and the Medical Research Council. E.K. is an EMBO fellow.

Author Contributions B.E.P., J.E.D. and J.J.E.C. performed SPR experiments; B.E.P., J.J.E.C., J.E.L. and S.Q. expressed proteins and crystallized the complex; M.C.S., E.K. and Q.Z. performed all assays with Neisseria and expressed fHbp; S.J., P.R. and S.M.L. collected and analysed X ray data; S.M.L. phased the X-ray data and built/refined the models; and S.M.L. and C.M.T. designed the research and wrote the paper.

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Correspondence to Christoph M. Tang or Susan M. Lea.

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This file contains Methods and Supplementary Data, Supplementary Tables 1-2, Supplementary Figures 1-11 with Legends and Supplementary References (PDF 2346 kb)

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Schneider, M., Prosser, B., Caesar, J. et al. Neisseria meningitidis recruits factor H using protein mimicry of host carbohydrates. Nature 458, 890–893 (2009).

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