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Toll-like receptors and antibody responses

Naturevolume 441pageE4 (2006) | Download Citation



Arising from: C. Pasare & R. Medzhitov Nature 438, 364–368 (2005); Pasare & Medzhitov reply.

Microbial components, such as lipopolysaccharides, augment immune responses by activating Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Some have interpreted this to mean that TLR signalling might not only help to initiate the adaptive immune response, but may also be required for it1. The expanded view is shared by Pasare and Medzhitov2, who conclude from an analysis of mice deficient in MyD88 (a TLR-signalling adaptor protein) that the generation of T-dependent antigen-specific antibody responses requires activation of TLRs in B cells. However, we show here that robust antibody responses can be elicited even in the absence of TLR signals. This appreciable TLR-independence of immune responses should be taken into account in the rational design of immunogenic and toleragenic vaccines.

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  1. 1

    Medzhitov, R. & Janeway, C. A. Jr Science 296, 298–300 (2002).

  2. 2

    Pasare, C. & Medzhitov, R. Nature 438, 364–368 (2005).

  3. 3

    Hoebe, K. et al. Nature 424, 743–748 (2003).

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  1. Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, 92037, California, USA

    • D. Nemazee
    • , A. Gavin
    • , K. Hoebe
    •  & B. Beutler


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Correspondence to D. Nemazee.

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