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Abstract

The origin of species diversity has challenged biologists for over two centuries. Allopatric speciation, the divergence of species resulting from geographical isolation, is well documented1. However, sympatric speciation, divergence without geographical isolation, is highly controversial2. Claims of sympatric speciation must demonstrate species sympatry, sister relationships, reproductive isolation, and that an earlier allopatric phase is highly unlikely1. Here we provide clear support for sympatric speciation in a case study of two species of palm (Arecaceae) on an oceanic island. A large dated phylogenetic tree shows that the two species of Howea, endemic to the remote Lord Howe Island, are sister taxa and diverged from each other well after the island was formed 6.9 million years ago3. During fieldwork, we found a substantial disjunction in flowering time that is correlated with soil preference. In addition, a genome scan4,5 indicates that few genetic loci are more divergent between the two species than expected under neutrality, a finding consistent with models of sympatric speciation involving disruptive/divergent selection2. This case study of sympatric speciation in plants provides an opportunity for refining theoretical models on the origin of species, and new impetus for exploring putative plant and animal examples on oceanic islands.

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Acknowledgements

We thank the Lord Howe Island Board, L. Wilson, T. Wilson, J. Smith and the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service for facilitating this research; E. Brown and B. Conn for logistical support; T. Wilmot, R. Cowan, L. Llédo, I. Gallego and L. Hanson for research assistance; C. Lewis, J. Roncal, M. Thomas and M. Beaumont for sharing data and software; J. Dowe, the Flecker Botanic Garden and Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney for providing material; J. Moat for GIS assistance; J. Dransfield, J.-C. Pintaud, S. Gavrilets, M. Chase, T. Barraclough and L. Rieseberg for discussions; and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, the BAT Biodiversity Partnership, the European Commission and the Leverhulme Trust for funding.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3DS, UK

    • Vincent Savolainen
    • , Christian Lexer
    • , James J. Clarkson
    • , Maria V. Norup
    • , Martyn P. Powell
    • , David Springate
    •  & William J. Baker
  2. Centre for Evolutionary and Functional Ecology, UMR 5175, 1919 Route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5, France

    • Marie-Charlotte Anstett
  3. PO Box 157, Lord Howe Island, New South Wales 2898, Australia

    • Ian Hutton
  4. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

    • Maria V. Norup
  5. Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

    • Nicolas Salamin

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Competing interests

DNA sequences have been deposited at EBI under accession numbers AF453329–AF453381, AY348907–AY348944, AY543096–AY5443156, AJ830020–AJ831373, AJ971821–AJ971841 (see Supplementary Information). Reprints and permissions information is available at npg.nature.com/reprintsandpermissions. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vincent Savolainen.

Supplementary information

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    Supplementary Notes

    Supplementary notes with list of taxa, chronogram, phenological profiles and population statistics.

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https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04566

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