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Electrical generation and absorption of phonons in carbon nanotubes

Abstract

The interplay between discrete vibrational and electronic degrees of freedom directly influences the chemical and physical properties of molecular systems. This coupling is typically studied through optical methods such as fluorescence, absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Molecular electronic devices provide new opportunities for exploring vibration–electronic interactions at the single molecule level1,2,3,4,5,6. For example, electrons injected from a scanning tunnelling microscope tip into a metal can excite vibrational excitations of a molecule situated in the gap between tip and metal7. Here we show how current directly injected into a freely suspended individual single-wall carbon nanotube can be used to excite, detect and control a specific vibrational mode of the molecule. Electrons tunnelling inelastically into the nanotube cause a non-equilibrium occupation of the radial breathing mode, leading to both stimulated emission and absorption of phonons by successive electron tunnelling events. We exploit this effect to measure a phonon lifetime of the order of 10 ns, corresponding to a quality factor of well over 10,000 for this nanomechanical oscillator.

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Figure 1: Measurement set-up and topographic images.
Figure 2: Spatially resolved spectroscopy along the suspended semiconducting SWCNT shown in Fig. 1b.
Figure 3: Current and diameter dependence of phonon-assisted tunnelling.
Figure 4: Comparison of the observed current dependence with theory.

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Acknowledgements

We thank Ya. M. Blanter for discussions, and NWO and FOM for funding.

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Correspondence to C. Dekker.

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LeRoy, B., Lemay, S., Kong, J. et al. Electrical generation and absorption of phonons in carbon nanotubes. Nature 432, 371–374 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03046

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