Efflux-dependent auxin gradients establish the apical–basal axis of Arabidopsis


Axis formation occurs in plants, as in animals, during early embryogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we show that the first manifestation of the apical–basal axis in plants, the asymmetric division of the zygote, produces a basal cell that transports and an apical cell that responds to the signalling molecule auxin. This apical–basal auxin activity gradient triggers the specification of apical embryo structures and is actively maintained by a novel component of auxin efflux, PIN7, which is located apically in the basal cell. Later, the developmentally regulated reversal of PIN7 and onset of PIN1 polar localization reorganize the auxin gradient for specification of the basal root pole. An analysis of pin quadruple mutants identifies PIN-dependent transport as an essential part of the mechanism for embryo axis formation. Our results indicate how the establishment of cell polarity, polar auxin efflux and local auxin response result in apical–basal axis formation of the embryo, and thus determine the axiality of the adult plant.

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Figure 1: Auxin and auxin response in embryogenesis.
Figure 2: DR5 auxin response in in vitro cultured ovules and mutants.
Figure 3: PIN expression and protein localization in embryogenesis.
Figure 4: Abnormal embryogenesis in auxin transport and response mutants.
Figure 5: A model for a role of auxin in embryo patterning.


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We thank S. Hiller, M. Kientz, G. Martin and M. L. O. Mendes for technical assistance, and C. Luschnig and K. Palme for providing material. Sequence-indexed Arabidopsis insertion mutants were obtained from the Salk Institute Genomic Analysis Laboratory and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. We are grateful to K. Cornelis and N. Geldner for critical reading of the manuscript. This work was supported by the Volkswagen Stiftung programme (M.S., J.F.), Landesgraduiertenförderung (A.V.), and the Research Council for Earth and Lifesciences (ALW), with financial aid from the Dutch Organization of Scientific Research (NWO) (D.W.) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

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Correspondence to Jiří Friml.

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Friml, J., Vieten, A., Sauer, M. et al. Efflux-dependent auxin gradients establish the apical–basal axis of Arabidopsis. Nature 426, 147–153 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02085

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