A common origin for cosmic explosions inferred from calorimetry of GRB030329

Abstract

Past studies1,2,3 have suggested that long-duration γ-ray bursts have a ‘standard’ energy of Eγ ≈ 1051 erg in the ultra-relativistic ejecta, after correcting for asymmetries in the explosion (‘jets’). But a group of sub-energetic bursts, including the peculiar GRB980425 associated4 with the supernova SN1998bw (Eγ ≈ 1048 erg), has recently been identified2,3. Here we report radio observations of GRB030329 that allow us to undertake calorimetry of the explosion. Our data require a two-component explosion: a narrow (5° opening angle) ultra-relativistic component responsible for the γ-rays and early afterglow, and a wide, mildly relativistic component that produces the radio and optical afterglow more than 1.5 days after the explosion. The total energy release, which is dominated by the wide component, is similar1,2,3,5 to that of other γ-ray bursts, but the contribution of the γ-rays is energetically minor. Given the firm link6,7 of GRB030329 with SN2003dh, our result indicates a common origin for cosmic explosions in which, for reasons not yet understood, the energy in the highest-velocity ejecta is extremely variable.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Radio light curves of the afterglow of GRB030329.
Figure 2: Radio to X-ray light curves of the afterglow of GRB030329.
Figure 3: Histograms of various energies measured for GRBs.

References

  1. 1

    Frail, D. A. et al. Beaming in gamma-ray bursts: Evidence for a standard energy reservoir. Astrophys. J. 562, L55–L58 (2001)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Berger, E., Kulkarni, S. R. & Frail, D. A. A standard kinetic energy reservoir in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Astrophys. J. 590, 379–385 (2003)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Bloom, J. S., Frail, D. A., Kulkarni, S. R. GRB energetics and the GRB Hubble diagram: Promises and limitations. Astrophys. J. 594, 674–683 (2003)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Galama, T. J. et al. An unusual supernova in the error box of the gamma-ray burst of 25 April 1998. Nature 395, 670–672 (1998)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Panaitescu, A. & Kumar, P. Properties of relativistic jets in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Astrophys. J. 571, 779–789 (2002)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Stanek, K. Z. et al. Spectroscopic discovery of the supernova 2003dh associated with GRB 030329. Astrophys. J. 591, L17–L20 (2003)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Hjorth, J. et al. A very energetic supernova associated with the γ-ray burst of 29 March 2003. Nature 423, 847–850 (2003)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Sheth, K. et al. GRB 030329 at millimeter wavelengths: OVRO, BIMA, & MAMBO observations. Astrophys. J. (submitted)

  9. 9

    Frail, D. A., Kulkarni, S. R., Berger, E. & Wieringa, M. H. A complete catalog of radio afterglows: The first five years. Astron. J. 125, 2299–2306 (2003)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Sari, R., Piran, T. & Halpern, J. P. Jets in gamma-ray bursts. Astrophys. J. 519, L17–L20 (1999)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Berger, E. et al. A jet model for the afterglow emission from GRB 000301C. Astrophys. J. 545, 56–62 (2000)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Chevalier, R. A. & Li, Z. Wind interaction models for gamma-ray burst afterglows: The case for two types of progenitors. Astrophys. J. 536, 195–212 (2000)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Price, P. A. et al. The bright optical afterglow of the nearby γ-ray burst of 29 March 2003. Nature 423, 844–847 (2003)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Tiengo, A. et al. The X-ray afterglow of GRB030329. Preprint at 〈http://arXiv.org/astro-ph/0305564〉 (2003).

  15. 15

    Kumar, P. The distribution of burst energy and shock parameters for gamma-ray bursts. Astrophys. J. 538, L125–L128 (2000)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Freedman, D. L. & Waxman, E. On the energy of gamma-ray bursts. Astrophys. J. 547, 922–928 (2001)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Granot, J., Nakar, E., Piran, T. The variable light curve of GRB 030329. The case for refreshed shocks. Preprint at 〈http://arXiv.org/astro-ph/0304563〉 (2003).

  18. 18

    Sari, R. & Mézáros, P. Impulsive and varying injection in gamma-ray burst afterglows. Astrophys. J. 535, L33–L37 (2000)

    ADS  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    MacFadyen, A. I., Woosley, S. E. & Heger, A. Supernovae, jets, and collapsars. Astrophys. J. 550, 410–425 (2001)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Rossi, E., Lazzati, D. & Rees, M. J. Afterglow light curves, viewing angle and the jet structure of γ-ray bursts. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 332, 945–950 (2002)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Li, Z. & Chevalier, R. A. Radio supernova SN 1998BW and its relation to GRB 980425. Astrophys. J. 526, 716–726 (1999)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Galama, T. J. et al. Continued radio monitoring of the gamma-ray burst 991208. Astrophys. J. 585, 899–907 (2003)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Sari, R. & Esin, A. A. On the synchrotron self-Compton emission from relativistic shocks and its implications for gamma-ray burst afterglows. Astrophys. J. 548, 787–799

  24. 24

    Henden, A., Canzian, B., Zeh, A. & Klose, S. GRB 030329: light curve flattens. GRB Circ. Netw. 2123 (2003)

  25. 25

    Ibrahimov, M. A. et al. GRB 030329: BVRI photometry. GRB Circ. Netw. 2191 (2003)

  26. 26

    Testa, V. et al. GRB 030329: VR photometry at TNG. GRB Circ. Netw. 2141 (2003)

Download references

Acknowledgements

GRB research at Caltech is supported in part by NSF and NASA. We are indebted to S. Barthelmy and the GCN. The VLA is operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operations as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. The Ryle Telescope is supported by PPARC.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to E. Berger.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Berger, E., Kulkarni, S., Pooley, G. et al. A common origin for cosmic explosions inferred from calorimetry of GRB030329. Nature 426, 154–157 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01998

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Search

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing