The Alliance for Cellular Signaling has chosen the mouse B lymphocyte as a model system to understand basic principles that govern cellular signalling. Progress to that end has focused initially on establishing a reproducible experimental cell system and characterizing essential signalling responses. Although unravelling this complex network will take years, findings revealed in the interim will prove immensely useful to the scientific community at large.
Access optionsAccess options
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Rent or Buy article
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Hasler, P. & Zouali, M. B cell receptor signaling and autoimmunity. FASEB J. 15, 2085–2098 (2001).
DeFranco, A. L. The complexity of signaling pathways activated by the BCR. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 9, 296–308 (1997).
Bishop, G. A. & Hostager, B. S. B lymphocyte activation by contact-mediated interactions with T lymphocytes. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 13, 278–285 (2001).
Cyster, J. G. Chemokines and cell migration in secondary lymphoid organs. Science 286, 2098–2102 (1999).
Rolink, A. G., Tschopp, J., Schneider, P. & Melchers, F. BAFF is a survival and maturation factor for mouse B cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 32, 2004–2010 (2002).
Klaus, G. G., Choi, M. S., Lam, E. W., Johnson-Leger, C. & Cliff, J. CD40: a pivotal receptor in the determination of life/death decisions in B lymphocytes. Int. Rev. Immunol. 15, 5–31 (1997).
Tarakhovsky, A. Antigen receptor signalling in B cells. Res. Immunol. 148, 457–460 (1997).
Miltenyi, S., Muller, W., Weichel, W. & Radbruch, A. High gradient magnetic cell separation with MACS. Cytometry 11, 231 (1990).
McLeod, S. J., Li, A. H. Y., Lee, R. L., Burgess, A. E. & Gold, M. R. The Rap GTPases regulate B cell migration towards the chemokine SDF-1 (CXCL12). Potential role for Rap2 in promoting B cell migration. J. Immunol. 169, 1365–1371 (2002).
Reif, K. & Cyster, J. G. RGS molecule expression in murine B lymphocytes and ability to down-regulate chemotaxis to lymphoid chemokines. J. Immunol. 164, 4720–4729 (2000).
Jakway, J. P., Usinger, W. R., Gold, M. R., Mishell, R. I. & DeFranco, A. L. Growth regulation of the B lymphoma cell line WEHI-231 by anti-immunoglobulin, lipopolysaccharide, and other bacterial products. J. Immunol. 137, 2225–2231 (1986).
Krebs, D. L., Yang, Y., Dang, M., Haussmann, J. & Gold, M. R. Rapid and efficient retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into B cell lines. Methods Cell Sci. 21, 57–68 (1999).
Scott, D. W., Livnat, D., Pennell, C. A. & Keng, P. Lymphoma models for B cell activation and tolerance. III. Cell cycle dependence for negative signaling of WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells by anti-μ. J. Exp. Med. 164, 156–164 (1986).
Benhamou, L. E., Cazenave, P.-A. & Sarthou, P. Anti-immunoglobulins induce death by apoptosis in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells. Eur. J. Immunol. 20, 1405–1407 (1990).
Strasser, A. et al. Enforced BCL2 expression in B-lymphoid cells prolongs antibody responses and elicits autoimmune disease. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 88, 8661–8665 (1991).
Su, A. I. et al. Large-scale analysis of the human and mouse transcriptomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 4465–4470 (2002).
Klippel, A., Escobedo, J. A., Hu, Q. & Williams, L. T. A region of the 85-kilodalton (kDa) subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase binds the 110-kDa catalytic subunit in vivo. Mol. Cell Biol. 13, 5560–5566 (1993).
Nisimoto, Y. & Ogawa, H. Interaction between p21-activated protein kinase and Rac during differentiation of HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell induced by all-trans retinoic acid. Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 2622–2629 (2002).
Iannone, M. A., Wolberg, G., & Zimmerman, T. P. Chemotactic peptide induces cAMP elevation in human neutrophils by amplification of the adenylate cyclase response to endogenously produced adenosine. J. Biol. Chem. 264, 20177–20180 (1989).
Marsters, S. A. et al. Interaction of the TNF homologues BlyS and APRIL with the TNF receptor homologues BCMA and TACI. Curr. Biol. 10, 785–788 (2000).
Serunian, L. A., Auger, K. R. & Cantley, L. C. Identification and quantification of polyphosphoinositides produced in response to platelet-derived growth factor stimulation. Methods Enzymol. 198, 78–87 (1991).
Hurley, J. H. & Meyer, T. Subcellular targeting by membrane lipids. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 13, 146–152 (2001).
About this article
Cancer Medicine (2013)
Pathway-selective suppression of chemokine receptor signaling in B cells by LPS through downregulation of PLC-β2
Cellular & Molecular Immunology (2010)
Nature Reviews Genetics (2010)
Journal of Computational Biology (2009)
Immunomodulation of human B cells following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins involves increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2
International Immunology (2008)