Biomedical electronic devices are interfaced with the human body to extract precise medical data and to interfere with tissue function by providing electrical stimuli. In this Review, we outline physiologically and pathologically relevant tissue properties and processes that are important for designing implantable electronic devices. We summarize design principles for flexible and stretchable electronics that adapt to the mechanics of soft tissues, such as those including conducting polymers, liquid metal alloys, metallic buckling and meandering architectures. We further discuss technologies for inserting devices into the body in a minimally invasive manner and for eliminating them without further intervention. Finally, we introduce the concept of integrating electronic devices with biomaterials and cells, and we envision how such technologies may lead to the development of bionic organs for regenerative medicine.
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R.F. thanks the Clore Scholarship programme, Marian Gertner Institute for Medical Nanosystems Fellowship and the Argentinian friends of Tel Aviv University. T.D. acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) Starting Grant 637943, the Slezak Foundation and the Israeli Science Foundation (700/13).
The authors declare no competing interests.
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Feiner, R., Dvir, T. Tissue–electronics interfaces: from implantable devices to engineered tissues. Nat Rev Mater 3, 17076 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2017.76
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